William Mason's ONWARD
Its trials, tribulations and travels, and comments on some early Nevada locomotives.
by Garrie L. Tufford
This page was last updated on September 30, 2007.
Scanned from "Western Railroader", October/November 1998 issue, number 627; special insert titled "For the Historian," with additional plates from Matthias Forney's Catechism of the Locomotive.
The Western Railroader is published monthly by the Pacific Coast Chapter, Railway & Locomotive Historical Society, Inc., San Francisco and Sacramento.
Mr. William Mason of Taunton, Massachusetts had a well deserved reputation as a locomotive builder. He became very interested in the "double-bogie, double-boiler" design promoted by Englishman Robert Fairlie in which there are two swiveling trucks or "bogies," each with cylinders and driving wheels, supporting a novel arrangement of what appears to be two boilers, back-to-back, through the cab, but is actually a single boiler in which water is able to circulate freely through the whole unit. This unusual boiler, with a smokebox and stack at each end, was heated by two separate fireboxes located in the middle. The double firebox was found necessary to prevent the draft at one end from interfering with that of the other. The engineer and fireman had to work on opposite sides of the boiler in the central') located cab. Mason completed a standard gauge locomotive on this pattern in 1870, an 0-6-6-0 (or 0-6-0+0-6-0 for the purist), named Janus.
The experience gained from building the Janus resulted in Mr. Mason's second Fairlie-type engine, the Onward, a narrow gauge 0-4-4 with 10x15" cylinders and 33" drivers. It had a more conventional single-ended boiler and only one of the "bogies" had driving wheels. Onward retained the advantages of the design - a larger firebox, weight distribution and swiveling trucks - while eliminating the inconvenience of limited cab space resulting from the unique boiler through the cab and the problem of limited fuel and water supply. It was similar to the locomotive design of Matthias Forney save for the greater flexibility created, in theory, by the powered and swiveling "bogie."
Onward was such a novelty that it was illustrated and described in the Railroad Gazette of November 25, 1871 while still under construction and without a buyer (p349c1); it was finished in early 1872 (RRG, 3/2/72 p95c1). The engraving for the Railroad Gazette article was prepared from a drawing rather than in the usual manner from a builder's photograph, which accounts for the several significant differences that can be seen in the two illustrations.
Why was Mason's first narrow-gauge engine, Onward, built to three-feet gauge? One factor was probably the influence of Robert Fairlie who was one of the foremost narrow gauge proponents. Another possibility, suggested by Art Wallace, was that a potential purchaser of the engine could be the Denver & Rio Grande, one of the few American narrow gauge roads under construction at that time. This was not to be, and Onward's first owner was a Utah mining road.
How good was the Onward? Various reports give glowing accounts. The Salt Lake Herald (9/1/72 p3c4) describing it at work on the American Fork Railroad reports "the locomotive has been successfully run over the heaviest grade on the road, 296 feet to the mile, at the rate of twelve miles per hour and carrying forty tons," and the Utah Mining Journal (9/3/72 p2c1) refers to it as an "infant monster," and that "five loaded cars are drawn up easily, though of course not at lightning speed." George Haggerty (p34) writes that Onward's sister engine, the Orion (c/n 508) on the Boston, Revere Beach & Lynn, "was a little bird but rode hard at high piston speed. I ran her many trips to Lynn and she could make 15 miles an hour with 6 cars of passengers." But, other problems with the design resulted in Onward's quick sale to one road after another.
American Fork Railroad, 1872-1873
This Utah road was built from American Fork City up American Fork canyon to serve the mines of the Miller Mining Co. (Reeder, 1970 pp193- 208), and was of three-foot gauge, although some reports give it as three-feet, six inches (Poor's 1875-78; Hauck, 1983 p59).
The Railroad Gazette reported on May 4th, 1872 (p 197c1), that "Mr. William Mason of Taunton, Mass., has recently concluded a contract with Mr. Edmund Wilkes, the General Manager of the [American Fork] company, for the construction for this road of two single-boiler Fairlie locomotives." Onward was shipped July 1st, when it was assigned Mason's construction number 461 (Mason construction list), and Fred Shalling, who was in charge of erecting the Onward at the Mason Works, accompanied it to Utah (Haggerty, p34). By this time Onward had also undergone one of its several name changes, and when it arrived in Salt Lake City on July 17th, it was described as American Fork Railroad No. 1, American Fork "a handsome locomotive, constructed on the Fairlie principle, and the second of the kind built in the United States." It left Salt Lake on the 22nd for its new home at American Fork (DEN 7/17/72 p3c1; SLH 7/21/72 p3c3).
The American Fork could travel by rail only as far as the southern terminus of the Utah Southern Railroad near Draperville where the engine was unloaded from the standard gauge cars and put "on a temporary track laid down in sections for the purpose" (SLH 8/6/72 p3c1). Moving the engine in this way for about 17 miles took several weeks, and finally, by August 20th, it reached American Fork City when it was steamed up for the first time in Utah (SLH 8/23/72 p2c2). How far it went that day is not known, but it could have traveled only eight miles, which is as far as track was then laid (SLH 8/21/72 p3c1; UMJ 8/26/72 p2c1).
Only two months after being put in service the American Fork had one of its first problems "in the bursting of an exhaust pipe" on October 25th. The Deseret News reporting this accident also noted that an engine of "greater power appears to be requisite" (DEN 10/28/72 p3c2). The American Fork was quickly repaired and returned to service. Several mentions are made of additional locomotives that were supposed to have been ordered and "expected daily" (UMJ 9/17/72 p3c2; 10/22/72 p3c2; 12/2/72 p3c3), but no arrivals are reported. The Railroad Gazette of March 29, 1873 (p129c3), quoting a letter from Mr. Mason in which he discusses his "Fairlie" engine, the Onward, at work on the American Fork Railroad, also gives the information "that he has revised his patterns and has another nearly ready for the same road." This new locomotive, of almost the same design as the Onward, was the third engine of this size that Mason built and it was not received by the American Fork either. It was sold instead to the North & South of Georgia, where it did not stay for very long, and was finally sold to the Boston, Revere Beach & Lynn as its Orion (Haggerty p34).
The American Fork Railroad rather quickly decided that the American Fork was not suitable, and advertised it for sale (SLH 4/17/73 p2c6). It had not yet been sold by September when an item in the Utah Mining Gazette asked "Can you tell me the reason why the American Fork railroad is run by horse power, with the locomotive laid up. Is it owing to defects in the engine, or is there not sufficient traffic for steam power? According to the published reports when the engine first arrived, it mounted the heaviest grades with ease, if so then, why not now?" (UMG 9/13/73 p21c1). It appears that American Fork needed additional repairs.
One writer, suggesting a possible sale of the locomotive, says "perhaps it was the unsatisfactory Mason 0-4-4 bogie from the American Fork, which did eventually become Utah & Northern 45 and Union Pacific 296, probably through UP absorption of a Utah short-line," that became "Salt Lake, Sevier Valley & Pacific [sic] [#1] in June 1873" (Hauck, 1983, p64). However, a slightly different set of travels was in store for American Fork nee Onward.
Eureka & Palisade Railroad, 1873-1879
The financial panic that began in September 1873, created havoc for just about all railroad construction schemes (RRG, 9/27/73, p392c1). But Nevada's Eureka & Palisade Railroad, after several false starts, finally began construction in late November 1873. Jack Gilmer and Monroe Salisbury, well-known stage operators, had bought the franchise to build a railroad from Elko to Hamilton in January (EDS 1/4/73 p2c1), and joined with Erastus Woodruff and William Ennors, of the other major Nevada stage company, in November to build the line from Palisade to Eureka instead (EDS 11/24/73 p1c1). Construction was started immediately with the first ground moved on the 25th (EDS 11/28/73 p1c2) and the first spike was driven on Monday, February 2, 1874 (EDS 2/7/74 p3c1). By this time William L. Pritchard, the freighter, had also obtained an interest in the E. & P. (EDS 1/9/74 p3c1; 1/11/74 p3c2; 6/23/74 p2c1).
The Eureka Sentinel reported in late December 1873 that "Twenty miles of iron is in San Francisco and negotiations are pending with one of the Narrow-Gauge companies of Utah for twenty more, including also a locomotive and several freight cars" (EDS 12/24/73 p3c3) and by the end of the month "a narrow gauge locomotive has already reached Palisade" (EDS 12/30/73 p3c3). The only Utah railroad with a locomotive and twenty miles of rail that would have been for sale at this time was the Salt Lake, Sevier Valley & Pioche, which was moribund since early October because of the "panic" (UMG 10/4/73 p46c1) This locomotive was Brooks c/n 167, the Kate Connor, an 11 x 16" Mogul. I suspect it is these two Sentinel articles that led Gilbert Kneiss (pp85, photo facing p90, 175) and others to believe that the Kate Conner was the Eureka & Palisade's first locomotive.
While the Kate Connor may have been used during the early construction of the E. & P. in 1874, it is not very likely, and this engine probably remained in Utah where it was purchased, along with the franchises of the Salt Lake, Sevier Valley & Pioche, by John W. Young in June 1874, when he formed the Utah Western Railway (DEN 6/24/74 p3c4). In addition it is known that the Kate Connor was pulling a train on the Utah Western in 1875 (SLT 5/2/75 p4c1). If it was used on the E. & P., it was for only a very short time.
Whatever locomotive became the Eureka & Palisade's first locomotive, it was named the Eureka (EDS 5/6/74 p2c2; EI 5/9/74; SFC 4/19/74), and was in the Central Pacific shops at Carlin for several weeks where "it [had] been undergoing repairs and been repainted" (EDS 1/30/74 p3c1; 2/14/74 p3c3; 2/18/74 p3c2). Severe winter storms prevented work on the roadbed and track from progressing very fast, and the engine's appearance in Palisade was delayed until April 18th when it arrived and was put on the track ready for work. The first run was made the same day with five flat cars over the first mile of track (EDS 4/19/74 p2c1 and p3c4).
A lucky break for the historian, but not quite as good for one of the E. & P.'s locomotives, occurred in 1875 when a steam delivery "T-pipe" broke on one of the road's engines. In order to make the necessary repairs a new casting was required, and the Central Pacific Railroad made this part. The original C. P. "pattern" drawing (C.P.R.R. #1497) has survived and is now in the California State Railroad Museum at Sacramento. Very helpful, of course, is that the drawing's caption (reproduced here) identifies it as a "Mason Eng." and that it was a "Fairlee." Even more fortuitous for the historian is that the broken part was rather unusual and it can be demonstrated to be unique: This part could only have been used on Mr. Mason's Onward.
The drawing of the "T-pipe" part reproduced here has been extracted from one of Mason's original "Onward" drawings (RR-175) in the Mason Machine Works collection at the Museum of American Textile History in North Andover, Massachusetts, and shows a part identical to the one made by the Central Pacific for the "Palasade R.R." engine. The two drawings discussed here could, if made the same scale, be laid one on top of the other. Mr. Mason apparently had some problem with his original design of the Onward, because it was the only engine where this part is shaped as it is shown in these drawings. Other locomotives built to this plan had a different configuration as shown in the comparative "Onward Pattern front-end" drawings (see also: RRG 3/29/73 p129c3, where Mason states he has "revised his patterns").
The uniqueness of the part means, of course, that Mr. Mason's Onward was now on the Eureka & Palisade with yet another name, the Eureka, having been purchased from the American Fork Railroad. All of the other E. & P. locomotives beginning with #2, the W. L. Pritchard, can be accounted for except #1, the Eureka (BLW Register pp186, 190, 192). This, then, was the locomotive that arrived in late December, 1873, and which had built the first several miles of the E. & P.
Eureka celebrated the arrival of the railroad on October 22, 1875. The Sentinel of the 23rd, giving an account of the previous day's events, notes that a passenger train headed by the "Tybo" and a freight pulled by the "Onward" were the main railroad attraction while "Tommy Kelley's minute guns" punctuated the brass band's notes as the trains pulled into town over the newly laid track, followed by the orations of the day, and all with toasts of "foaming lager beer" and "sparkling Heidsieck" (EDS 10/23/75 p3c2). Gilbert Kneiss's 1941 account of the celebration was, without question, based on this article (pp89-90).
When the Eureka & Palisade was completed to Eureka, there were four locomotives on the road, including a new Baldwin Mogul (#4) that was named Eureka (BLW Register p192). With a second Eureka and locomotives named Tybo and Onward, it appears the E. & P. had renamed (but did not renumber) its locomotives, probably early in 1875. It is known that #2, W. L. Pritchard, was renamed Tyho (BLW Register p186). It is not known if #1, the first Eureka, or #3, another Baldwin Mogul, became the "new" Onward, but it is interesting to note that Mr. Mason's Onward was illustrated twice again in the contemporary railroad press. Matthias Fomey's 1874 book, Catechism of the Locomotive, was first "serialized" in the Railroad Gazette, and a new engraving of Mr. Mason's Onward appeared in the August 29th issue (RRG 8/29/74, plate 17 facing p335).
Nevada Central Railway, 1879-1882
Construction of a railroad from Battle Mountain to Austin, Nevada, was begun September 1, 1879, after several years of trying to attract investors to such a project. Bonds had been authorized by the Nevada Legislature in 1875 to aid a railroad but stipulated that in order to collect them the road would have to be completed to Austin by February 9th, 1880. This was not much time to build a ninety-mile railroad, although the promoters were optimistically saying that it would be completed by December 31st (RRR 9/1/79 p3c2; WSS 9/3/79 p3c2). With such a short period of time to build the road, it is not surprising that the contractors searched for and bought whatever equipment and supplies were readily available with the result that the road's first five locomotives were all used.
The first two locomotives "arrived" in Battle Mountain about the same time, possibly the same day, in early October. Because both came from points east of Battle Mountain, the several newspaper accounts are not always clear about which engine was being referred to, and there is some uncertainty about which "arrived" when.
The Reese River Reveille makes the first mention of a locomotive with the report that "an engine will arrive from the East this week" (RRR 9/24/79 p3c3), and a few days later the Winnemucca Silver State (WSS 9/26/79 p3c2) comments that "a locomotive and cars are expected from the East in a week or two." Progress of the "train" on its way is reported with "twenty cars and a locomotive, for the Nevada Central Railway, passed Cheyenne several days ago, and are about due at Battle Mountain" (RRR 10/3/79 p3c3; EDL 10/7/79). At last, the Silver State of Monday, October 6th, quotes the superintendent of construction, R. M. Steele, "that an engine and 20 cars ... arrived at Battle Mountain last Saturday [the 4th]" (WSS 10/6/79 p3c2).
It is probably not coincidence that only a very short time earlier the Bath & Hammondsport R.R., of western New York, "have made another change in engines. The 'Jonathan Robie' [has] been sold to a western party" (HH 9/24/79 p3c 1), after having first advertised it for sale almost a year earlier in 1878 (HH 10/16/78 p3c1). The Jonathan Robie was Brooks c/n 230, an 11x16" Mogul, identical to the Salt Lake, Sevier Valley & Pioche's Kate Connor. Important to the Nevada Central's locomotive history is that a Brooks 11 x16" Mogul was indeed N. C. #1, Battle Mountain, and later sold to the Utah Eastern. If not the Kate Connor, discussed in connection with the Eureka & Palisade, what Brooks engine of this size was it? All of the Brooks 11 x 16" Moguls can be accounted for on roads elsewhere except the Jonathan Robie. The Brooks engine was not put to work right away, but several weeks later when it was reported "there will be ... put on next week ... another engine and train of cars" (BMM 10/25/79 p3c1).
A different locomotive, named the Austin, is the first to be reported "on the track" at Battle Mountain on Monday, October 6th (RRR 10/6/79 p3cl; see also related articles in RRR 10/4/79 p3c1 and BMM 10/4/79 p3c5). Two items from the Battle Mountain Messenger of October 11th are of particular significance in connection with this event: One states that "Chief Engineer Lyman Bridges returned from Eureka with one engine and ten cars. They have been pushing iron and ties to the front for the past few days" (p3c 1), and the other that "the first steam was raised on the Nevada Central on Tuesday the 7th day of October 1879" (p3c2).
The Silver State notes that the Nevada Central "have two locomotives, one of which was purchased from the Eureka and Palisade Company, whose agents had it fitted up to sell. The boiler of this engine leaks badly when it is cold and to prevent the water from running out it has to be kept under a full head of steam day and night" (WSS 11/7/79 p3c2). The only locomotive that disappears from the Eureka & Palisade is their #1, first Eureka, Mr. Mason's Onward, and a broken steam pipe seems to have been but only one of its problems on the E. & P. Now the engine from Eureka is the first to run on the Nevada Central, busy helping to build its third railroad, and has yet a new name, the Austin. It also quickly acquires a nickname, the "Dinky" (BMM 3/27/80 p3c3).
The Austin's stay on the Nevada Central, as well as the road's other locomotives, is fairly well documented. It was decided quite early that the first two locomotives would be relegated to "switching" service at their namesake towns (BMM 1/24/80 p3c2; RRR 1/26/80). After construction was completed several of the engines were overhauled, including the Austin, and the Messenger reports that "Number two, commonly called 'the dinky,' has been turned out of the shop almost as good as new and looks as if it could build another railroad or two, before being converted into old iron. (This is the engine that has been used in the construction of three railroads)" (BMM 3/27/80 p3c3). More than once the Austin, aka "Dinky", is found hauling the passenger train (BMM 11/13/80 p3c3; LFP 8/26/81 p3c1).
The Nevada Central ordered two new Baldwin Moguls that were to be numbered second #1 and #2, and in turn sold first #1 and #3 to the Utah Eastern (BMM 10/30/80 p3c1; 11/13/80 p3c3; RRR 11/1/80), but the new engines did not arrive until June and July of 1881 (RRR 6/9/81 p3c4; BMM 7/27/81 p2c3). By this time other changes had come to the Nevada Central with the Union Pacific acquiring control of the road (RRR 6/7/81 p2c2; BMM 6/18/81 p2c1).
The Austin was put in the shop when the new Moguls arrived and the Messenger carried this item: "The Dinkey [sic] is being thoroughly overhauled at the shops and in the course of a few weeks will be doing good work again. In connection with its repairs we noticed a nice piece of iron doctoring the other day. One of the steam chests had been so badly broken that when laid on the floor it looked like a chinese puzzle, and was by many considered to be beyond repair, yet, the different pieces were banded and riveted together so neatly and compactly that it is now as serviceable as ever" (BMM 7/16/81 plc4). It was also during this overhaul that the Austin emerged from the shop with a new number, as the second #3 (LFP 8/12/81 p3c2; BMM 8/13/81 p3c1). Finally, "The Dinky," was shipped back to Utah (but apparently not sold) for use on the Utah & Northern Railway (LFP 12/22/82 p3c2).
Utah & Northern Railway, 1882-end
By January 1883, the Utah & Northern Railway was a major Union Pacific branch line extending from Ogden, Utah to Butte, Montana. The track also extended slightly farther north to a connection with the Northern Pacific at Garrison. This line needed considerable motive power and several locomotives were moved to it from other U. P. narrow gauge roads.
The arrival of "Three locomotives from the Nevada Central" for the U. & N. was reported in the Utah papers (ODH 1/10/83 p3c1; SLT 1/11/83 p4c1), with the Ogden paper noting they would "be used as switch engines at different stations along the line." While one locomotive is known to have been shipped from the N. C., the other two may have come from other Union Pacific narrow gauge lines. This is corroborated by some 1885 Union Pacific correspondence and reports. Assistant Auditor George W. Hall was sent to Battle Mountain January 1st, 1885, by General Manager S. R. Callaway to examine the Nevada Central records while it was under Union Pacific control. Hall's Report of January 25th notes that "one of the Locomotives belonging to the Nevada Central Rwy. Co. was by order of Mr. S. H. H. Clarke [sic], former Gen'l Manager of the Union Pacific Rwy. Co. shipped to the Utah Northern Rw'y, and I understand is in use on that road. The Nevada Central has never received any credit for the service of its locomotive." Sidney Dillon, former U. P. president, writing to President Charles Adams March 16, 1885, in response to a query about the Nevada Central engine, says "It has heretofore been customary to place the machinery on our different roads ... where it would be the most available and the greatest benefit to the whole system.... I knew at the time that there was a change of machinery proposed, between the Nevada Central and Utah & Northern roads and told Mr. Clark to do what he thought best in the matter."
According to the Union Pacific's 1885 roster, engine #296, which was old Utah & Northern #45, is a Mason engine with the same dimensions as Mr. Mason's Onward. The Utah & Northern apparently considered the Nevada Central's "Dinky" its own, and immediately assigned it #45, because very soon after its arrival on the U. & N. it had found its way to Spring Hill, Montana, a division point 300 miles north of Ogden where a #45 was duly recorded in an old oil record book as having been lubricated before the end of December, 1882. If the "Dinky" was to be used as a switch engine on the U. & N., Spring Hill would have been one of the possible places for it to be assigned. (Spring Hill was where the Utah & Northern rail line met the Red Rock River, approximately 294 miles north of Ogden, and according to the book "Montana Place Names" published in 2009, Spring Hill was renamed Lima in 1889. --ds)
The 1885 roster also has a curious note attached to the entry for U. & N. #296. While all of the dimensions are very close to those of the Onward as built, including total wheel base, it is remarked that this is a "6 wheel" locomotive. The implication is that during some overhaul the rear truck was modified to having but a single axle, making it an 0-4-2. If such a modification was made, it is not known when or where this was done.
Unfortunately, Onward's end is not precisely known. While it appears in the 1885 roster, it is gone by the time Richard Morgan's (pp4470- 4476) inventory of the Union Pacific's locomotives as of September 1, 1887, was made in connection with the U.S. Pacific Railway Commission's investigation of the U.P. Finally, it is very interesting that one of the Utah & Northern's locomotives, #13 a Baldwin Mogul, is listed in the Morgan report (p4475) as being on the Nevada Central. Perhaps, as payment for Onward's service on the Utah & Northern?
The gypsy-like vagabond's trail is now cold after running on four railroads over a rather short fifteen year period. Built optimistically as a promising new kind of locomotive, the Onward's wanderings saw some fascinating early western railroading as American Fork #1 American Fork, Eureka & Palisade #1 Eureka possibly Onward again, Nevada Central #2 Austin aka "The Dinky" later #3, Utah & Northern #45 later #296. While the dainty little engine had its ailments and acquired some scars along the way, its motto seems to have been "Onward, ever Onward!"
Acknowledgments and the History of an Idea
This story of the Onward has its own history, and apart from my own visits to libraries and archives to examine old newspapers, drawings and other contemporary records, there are many who have been responsible for making this chronicle what it is today. It was the Nevada history that has been largely unknown until quite recently. The general histories and rosters of the Eureka & Palisade and Nevada Central railroads in Gilbert Kneiss's and David Myrick's books are well known and need no introduction.
David Garcia was among the first to question what the Eureka & Palisade's first locomotive was. He had come across a contemporary item in the early 1980s that suggested one of the E. & P.'s early locomotives might have been built by Mason, and his discussions with California and Nevada friends started the search to find such a locomotive.
Another of Dave's nagging questions was what proof was there that the Kate Connor, a Brooks' engine, was actually E. & P. #1, the first Eureka? As noted above, the Kate Connor was reported pulling a train on the Utah Western in 1875, and George E. Pitchard (p15) also confirmed this by his finding of this engine's construction number on a photo taken in Utah. But a Brooks Mogul was one of the Nevada Central's first engines. It was the late Clare Rogers' research on the Bath & Hammondsport who found that the B. & H.'s Jonathan Robie, a Brooks' engine of the same class as the Kate Connor, was "sold to a Western party" in late 1879, and it appears it was to the Nevada Central.
To be sure, there were few Mason locomotives as candidates to become an E. & P. engine, and the most likely were those of the Onward "pattern" and one built for the ill-fated Stockton & Ione, the Stockton. The late Arthur Browning made a dimensional analysis of the Onward and Stockton from photos, and determined that the Onward and Utah & Northern #45 could be the same locomotive and that the Stockton could not be.
Kyle Wyatt found the Central Pacific "T-pipe" part drawing in the California State Railroad Museum in 1993 that gave the first concrete proof that a Mason "Fairlee" was on the E. & P. It then became a simple task to compare this unusual part with the same one shown on the original Mason drawings in Massachusetts, and from them also determine it was a part unique to the Onward.
To the list of those who helped along the way by exchanging information and ideas must be added Art Wallace (whose extensive research on Mr. Mason's bogies is a treasure trove), John Robinson, James Ehemberger and Mal Ferrell.
(The Pacific Coast Chapter published another excellent study on some of these same subjects, by Cornelius Hauck. See Fall 1997 "For the Historian").
NOTE: In the body of the text most newspaper items are identified with the abbreviation prefixed in parentheses preceding their listings below.
(BLW) Baldwin Locomotive Works, Register of Engines Made by M. Baird & Co. (Burnham, Parry, Williams & Co.), volume 2, Nos. 1-5980 (1833-1881), Philadelphia, Pa., MS #157, National Museum of American History, Washington, D.C.
(BMM) Battle Mountain Messenger, Battle Mountain, NV.
Central Pacific Railroad Company collection, California State Railroad Museum Library, Sacramento, CA.
(DEN) Deseret Evening News, Salt Lake City, UT.
(EDL) Eureka Daily Leader, Eureka, NV.
(EDS) Eureka Daily Sentinel, Eureka, NV.
(El) Weekly Elko Independent, Elko, NV.
Haggerty, George A. (1928), [Recollections of George Haggerty putting Mason locomotives into service], ed. by Charles E. Fisher, Railway and Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin, No. 17, October, 1928, pages 29-38.
Hauck, Cornelius W. (1983), Early Narrow Gauge Locomotives in the West, Railroad History, Railway & Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin, No. 149, pages 51-69.
(HH) Hammondsport Herald Hammondsport, NY. Kneiss, Gilbert H. (1941 [1954 ed.]), Bonanza Railroads, Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA, 187 pages.
(LFP) Lander Free Press, Battle Mountain, NV. Mason Machine Works collection, MS P1015, Museum of American Textile History, North Andover, MA.
Mason Machine Works, (undated) Construction list compiled by S. R. Wood.
Morgan, Richard Price, Jr. (1888), Report on the Union Pacific Railroad and Its Branches ... October 15, 1887, in Report of the U. S. Pacific Railway Commission, Senate Executive Documents (2505-2509), 50th Congress, First Session, p. 4435-4507.
Myrick, David F. (1962), Railroads of Nevada, 2 volumes, Howell-North Books, Berkeley, CA, 933 pages.
(ODH) Ogden Daily Herald Ogden, UT.
Pitchard, George E. (1987), A Utah Railroad Scrapbook, privately distributed manuscript, Salt Lake City, UT, 306 pages.
Poor, Henry V. (1872-1882), Manual of the Railroads of the United States for [year], H. V. & H. W. Poor, New York. [various issues]
(RRG) Railroad Gazette, New York.
Reeder, Clarence A. Jr. (1970), The History of Utah's Railroads 1869-1883, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 459 pages.
(RRR) Reese River Reveille, Austin, NV.
(SFC) San Francisco Chronicle, San Francisco, CA.
(SLH) Salt Lake Herald, Salt Lake City, UT.
(SLT) Salt Lake Tribune, Salt Lake City, UT.
Union Pacific Railway Company (1885), Locomotives, Snow Plows, Flangers and Passenger and Freight Car Equipment, Omaha Nebraska, June 1, 1885. [Reprinted by James L. Ehernberger, Cheyenne, WY, 1989.]
Union Pacific Railway Company, Nevada Central tiles, MS 3761, Nebraska State Historical Society, Lincoln, NE.
(UMG) Utah Mining Gazette, Salt Lake City, UT.
(UMJ) Utah Mining Journal, Salt Lake City, UT.
Utah & Northern Railway Company (undated), [Record of locomotives that received engine oil, lard oil, lamp oil and tallow between August and December 1882, at Spring Hill Montana], privately owned manuscript of W. C. Kelly, Pocatello, ID (courtesy of James Ehernberger).
(WSS) The Silver State, Winnemucca, N V.