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Bingham Consolidated Mining Company

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In April 1901, Bingham Consolidated Mining & Smelting Company brought together two of the larger mining companies at Bingham: Bingham Copper and Gold Mining Co. in Copper Center Gulch in Upper Bingham, with its Commercial mine; and the Dalton & Lark mine on the on the mountain ridge that separated Bingham canyon from the Salt Lake valley. The Dalton & Lark properties also included the Yosemite and Brooklyn mines, as well as the Mascotte drain tunnel. Included in the consolidation was the Copper Belt Railroad, owned by the Bingham Copper and Gold Mining company.

(Read more about the Bingham Copper & Gold Mining Company)

(Read more about the Copper Belt Railroad)

Bingham Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company

(Includes the Mascotte drain tunnel)

Bingham Consolidated company, as the reason for its Dalton & Lark Railroad, had projected the construction of the Dalton & Lark Drainage Tunnel. Although the tunnel was never completed (???), the idea for a tunnel between the mines in Bingham Canyon and Salt Lake Valley, on the east slope of the Oquirrhs, did not die. (Arrington: Richest Hole, pp. 87, 88)

"The unwatering of the large consolidated Brooklyn-Dalton and Lark property, acquired by this company in 1901, has been accomplished by a long tunnel cut in from the east. The workings thus drained have been put in shape for mining, and active underground exploration is reported to have revealed, among other valuable developments, a large body of minable copper ore in the Brooklyn. Shipments from this portion of the company's holdings were begun late in 1903." (Economic Geology of Bingham Mining District, Professional Paper 38, USGS, 1905, page 381)

Pending completion of the drain tunnel itself, "within five years", the ore was to be brought down from the mine (1,000 feet above the drain tunnel portal) by way of a new four mile, 24 inch gauge electric line. This "temporary" electric would be built with five percent grades and operated with ten-ton electric locomotives.

April 1901
Bingham Consolidated Mining & Smelting Company was incorporated in Maine in April 1901. (Salt Lake Mining Review, January 15, 1902)

April 24, 1901
To finance additional expansion, on April 24, 1901 the Bingham Copper and Gold Mining Company was reorganized as the Bingham Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company. The expansion included the purchase of the Dalton & Lark mining properties. With the reorganization, the new Bingham Consolidated company also announced that they would formally purchase the interests of the Copper Belt railroad. (Engineering and Mining Journal, May 4, 1901, p. 572; USGS Professional Paper 38, p. 99)

(Read more about the Bingham Copper & Gold Mining Company, 1895-1901)

April 30, 1901
The stockholders of the Bingham Copper and Gold Mining Company were notified that their company had been sold to a new company by the name of Bingham Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company, incorporated in Maine for the purpose of exchanging stock between the old and new companies, and to purchase the properties of the Dalton & Lark, Brooklyn, Antelope and other groups, and for the purchase of the Copper Belt Railway. The Dalton & Lark and other groups consist of twenty-eight claims, embracing over 200 acres. The plan had already been endorsed by 75 per cent of the stockholders, and the remaining stockholders had until May 8, 1901 to exchange their stock in the old company, for stock in the new company. (Deseret Evening News, April 30, 1901)

May 18, 1901
Copper Belt Railroad was incorporated by the owners of the Bingham Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company, to serve their Commercial mine, with openings in both Galena Gulch and Copper Center Gulch. Controlling interest in the company was turned over to William Bayley in return for his lease of the tramway and locomotive.

(Read more about the Copper Belt Railroad)

July 5, 1901
The Dalton & Lark property was sold on July 5, 1901 to the Bingham Copper & Gold company, at the purchase price of $250,000, plus $1 million in stock of the purchasing company. (Deseret News, July 6, 1901, "yesterday afternoon")

(Read more about the Dalton & Lark company, 1890-1901; including a timeline that includes the construction of the Mascotte tunnel)

July 11, 1901
A new shaft is being sunk in the Dalton & Lark property to meet the Mascotte drain tunnel at its 4500-foot mark, from which the tunnel will be extended an additional 2500 feet to meet the old workings, resulting in the drain tunnel being 7000 feet in length. (Deseret News, July 11, 1901)

August 23, 1901
The Dalton & Lark tunnel had been completed to a length of 1,070 feet, and was progressing at the rate of seven feet per day, by hand drills by men on three shifts. (Salt Lake Herald, August 23, 1901)

August 30, 1901
The surveys had been completed, and the route staked, for the new Rio Grande branch from Revere Switch to the Dalton & Lark mine. (Salt Lake Herald, August 30, 1901)

September 29, 1901
Grading commenced "last Sunday" (September 29) for the new Dalton & Lark electric railway to be run from "the dump of the Lark incline to the mouth of the deep tunnel, a distance of something over a mile, where it will connect with the Rio Grande spur from Revere station, soon to begin construction." (Salt Lake Herald, September 30, 1901)

October 1901
To provide dependable transportation to the Dalton & Lark, Yosemite, and Brooklyn properties, the Bingham Consolidated company began construction on a railroad line from what was known as "Revere" station (later, Dalton), to the point where the mining company planned to have the mouth of its drain tunnel. The rail line would later become Rio Grande Western's Dalton & Lark Branch.

October 12, 1901
"A busy scene is presented at the Dalton & Lark tunnel, where quite the nucleus of a village has sprung up, and to which point the rural delivery system was extended by Postmaster Roberts this week. Forty men, having headquarters there, are employed in driving the tunnel and installing compressors and other machinery. Buildings thus far completed are a two story boarding and bunk house, two residences and office." "On the line of the tunnel, about a mile from its mouth, twelve men are sinking a shaft, which will be connected with the compressor by surface pipe, when driving will be done both ways using machine drills. At the tunnel end of the electric tram to connect the tunnel with Dalton & Lark dump, about twenty men are working on grade." (Deseret Evening News, October 12, 1901)

November 4, 1901
"Next week the Bingham Consolidated mining company will begin laying rails on the Dalton & Lark branch of eight miles." (Deseret Evening News, November 9, 1901)

November 12, 1901
"During the past week a 300 horsepower air compressor was installed with which, pending completion of the shaft, the tunnel was being pushed into the mountain at the rate of ten feet per day." (Deseret Evening News, November 12, 1901)

December 9, 1901
"Track laying has begun on the Rio Grande Western branch from Revere to Dalton & Lark tunnel." (Salt Lake Herald, December 9, 1901)

December 29, 1901
The following comes from a four page summary of the mines of Bingham, and specifically a summary of the operations of the new Bingham Consolidated company:

"The old workings of the Dalton & Lark have been cleared and put in condition for effective mining; the Antelope mine is also being opened and equipped for active work; a new electric tramway three and a half miles long, with a 5 per cent grade is being constructed from the terminus of the new branch line to the Lead Mine and Yosemite workings, preparing for extensive operations in those old producers; they have secured and are making ready to resume work in the old Brooklyn, whose production record reaches several millions, and as soon as required will extend the electric road two miles further around to that property; they have newly equipped the machine shop of the Dalton & Lark plant; in fact, they are reaching out in every direction, securing some of the best property in the district, and making of it a compact body, well adapted for the most extensive mining operations. In the Brooklyn they are on the great main vein, or mother lode, the same as the Old Jordan and the Old Telegraph; in the Lead Mine and Yosemite No. 2 they are on the same vein as the Commercial, the next parallel vein to the one first mentioned; in the Dalton & Lark they have still another vein further west and parallel with the others." (Salt Lake Herald, December 29, 1901)

January 1902
Bingham Consolidated completed construction of the 3.6 mile "Dalton and Lark Railroad" as a connection between the portal of its Dalton and Lark Drain Tunnel and the Rio Grande Western's Bingham branch. The new line was to replace the four mile horse tramway that had been built by the mine's previous owners in the late 1890s between the old Dalton and Lark mine, and Lead Mine station on the Rio Grande Western. The new line was built with 3.6 percent grades using 56-pound rail, and was operated with Shay locomotives. (Engineering News, July 24, 1902, p. 59; Hansen, p. 273)

February 7, 1902
"The tramway between the mouth of the great tunnel and the Dalton & Lark properties of the Bingham Consolidated has gone into commission and pending the arrival and installation of the electric motor that will eventually provide the motive power to operate the tram trains, mules are doing the heavy work. Coal was being hauled up to the mines yesterday." (Salt Lake Herald, February 7, 1902)

April 12, 1902
An eight-inch steel pipe was being laid between the new 150-drill air compressor at the mouth of the Dalton & Lark tunnel, up the hill side for a distance of 1-1/2 miles to the mine opening. "As soon as the plant is completed connections will be made and with power drills tearing through the ore bodies already developed, the tramway down to the main line of the railroad at the tunnel's mouth will be kept humming." "The Bingham Consolidated will present a busy scene within the next thirty days." (Salt Lake Herald, April 12, 1902)

Spring 1902
"The Dalton & Lark railroad, connecting the mines with the Rio Grande Western railroad, on which the smelter is located, was completed in the spring of 1902." (Salt Lake Herald, August 11, 1902)

May 1902
The Bingham Consolidated smelter was expanded to allow the production of lead. (Hansen, p. 273)

May 5, 1902
"The Mascott tunnel (Dalton & Lark) is now in about 3,000 feet. The air shaft being sunk 4,100 feet from the mouth of the tunnel will in another fifty feet reach the tunnel level, when drifting both ways from it will begin." (Salt Lake Herald, May 5, 1902)

May 28, 1902
"The Bingham Con. electric tramway connecting the Dalton & Lark property with the railroad is nearly half completed already, and the material for the remaining section of the line is being rushed to the scene as quickly as possible. In the meantime some ore is being carried over the section of the tramway at present completed and from its terminus is being hauled to the railroad station. This tramway will when completed be one and a half miles in length." (Deseret Evening News, May 28, 1902)

July 1902
The "Dalton & Lark Drain Tunnel" had reached a point 7,000 feet into the mountain. To ship its ores from mine to smelter, the Bingham Consolidated company contracted with Rio Grande Western to build a rail line between Revere station of the RGW Bingham Branch, and the Mascotte tunnel opening at Lark. Construction started on October 1, 1901, and was completed on January 1, 1902. A profile diagram of the completed road showed a starting elevation of 5,112.44 feet at Revere station, and an ending elevation at the mine of 5,464.95 feet. A secondary 24-inch tramway using electric motive power and 5 percent grades, was completed between the Lark tunnel and the Dalton & Lark mine opening, which was about 1,000 feet higher than Lark. ("Different Methods of Hauling Ore at Bingham, Utah" by W. P. Hardesty, July 24, 1902, Engineering News, Volume 48, July-December 1902, page 59)

(The above article covers also the construction of the Copper Belt railroad, the Dalton & Lark spur, and the Highland Boy aerial tramway.)

August 18, 1902
"The rails of the Dalton & Lark electric tramway are too light for the ten-ton motor used, and the latter leaves the track at the slightest provocation, causing much annoyance. A lighter motor or heavier rails will be substituted." (Salt Lake Herald, August 18, 1902)

September 1, 1902
"The drain tunnel at Dalton & Lark will make connection with air shaft by Oct. 15, barring accidents, as the distance to drive is now but 437 feet." (Salt Lake Herald, September 1, 1902)

(A May 1902 item stated that the air shaft was 4,100 feet from the tunnel mouth.)

October 20, 1902
"Bingham Con. Affairs." "The new electric railway is completed at the Dalton & Lark properties, and on Oct. 6 they made a trial run, sending down fifty-nine cars." "The new Dalton & Lark tunnel is in 4,280 feet. One of the objects of this tunnel is to unwater the Dalton & Lark and Brooklyn mines. As the tunnel has already begun to lower the water in these mines, Manager McVichie states it will not be necessary to do any more pumping. As soon as the tunnel is completed and our railroad connections made, all of the ore from the mines will be worked through this tunnel and delivered direct to the ore bins." "The water in the Dalton & Lark mines has been lowered to the 850-foot level." (Salt Lake Tribune, October 20, 1902)

December 3, 1902
"The Dalton & Lark drain tunnel at Bingham carries large and increasing bodies of water, the amount now being estimated at more than double that raised by the pumps. The tunnel has now about reached the 5,000 foot station." (Deseret Evening News, December 3, 1902)

February 9, 1903
"To date the Mascot (Dalton & Lark) tunnel has been driven about 5,100 feet and is nearing Antelope ground, in which is the Lark vein. It is now running in exceedingly hard rock and the flow of water has diminished -- indicating that the wall of vein is near at hand. At something over 6,000 feet the tunnel will go under the Dalton & Lark main incline, several hundred feet below it." (Salt Lake Herald, February 9, 1903)

April 11, 1903
"At the Bingham company's Mascot, or Dalton & Lark tunnel, the flow of water is now reported as 2,300 gallons per minute. Manager McVichie says it is greatly interfering with the progress of work and things have to be taken pretty care until the flow diminishes. If the face was in the lime rather than quartzite great damage might be done to the tunnel. As it is the mines are being gradually drained, anyhow, and in the near future he expects to be able to tap the Brooklyn vein without disturbing anything." (Salt Lake Herald, April 11, 1903)

May 4, 1903
"We have already begun taking ore from the Brooklyn mine of the Dalton & Lark group at the rate of 100 tons per day and from the entire Dalton & Lark group we are taking out about 175 tons per day for treatment at our smelter." "We are now handling between 20,000 and 25,000 gallons (sic: 2000 to 2500 gallons) of water every minute through the Mascot tunnel on the Dalton & Lark properties and reducing the water in the mine at the rate of four inches per day." "This water is 800 feet lower than the lowest workings in any of the mines, and it is expected that we will be able to reach the ore body at this depth within ninety days." (Salt Lake Herald, May 4, 1903; USGS Professional Paper 38, p. 381)

May 24, 1903
"While a veritable river of water is still issuing from the mouth of the Bingham Consolidated company's Mascot, or Dalton & Lark, tunnel at Bingham, good progress is being made with the work of pursuing the long avenue into the company's territory. During the week ending the 16th the face was advanced thirty-nine feet, while the record for the past week has been fifty feet; not bad work when it is considered that 3,500 gallons of water per minute is making in the last 200 feet of the ground passed through. Another 100 feet, manager McVichie stated yesterday, would tap the Brooklyn vein and he is confident of reaching there during the next three weeks. When that ledge is tapped the draining of the mines along its strike will be rapidly accomplished and ore will then begin pouring from the Dalton & Lark workings in constantly increasing volume, while the earnings of the company will be correspondingly added to." (Salt Lake Herald, May 24, 1903)

June 17, 1903
The tunneling work in the Dalton & Lark, or Mascot tunnel, is being done under contract to G. S. Hayes, who was also tunneling in the Park City district. (Salt Lake Tribune, June 17, 1903)

July 26, 1903
"Development work is soon to be resumed on the 850 level of the Lark vein, which after having been flooded for several years, has now been drained by the Mascot tunnel." (Salt Lake Herald, July 26, 1903)

October 26, 1903
"Work in the Mascot tunnel has been temporarily suspended. The tunnel having thoroughly accomplished one of its main purposes -- that of unwatering the Dalton & Lark mine -- for a short time advantage will be taken of the gradual subsidence of its flow, which during the past summer has made every foot of advance doubly expensive. Meantime a small army of men could be employed in putting the long-flooded regions in shape to resume production and in other parts of the big property. The Fortune mine, together with its big ore dumps, being now under lease to the Bingham Con. company, a track connecting its main tunnel with the Dalton & Lark electric tramway will soon be finished and a stream of ore started for the bins of Bingham smelter. The Fortune, inside and out, has many thousands of tons in sight, as a result of developments before it got into the courts a couple of years ago." (Salt Lake Herald, October 26, 1903)

November 3, 1903
RGW bought the "Dalton & Lark Railroad" from Bingham Consolidated Mining & Smelting Company. The rail line became RGW's "Dalton & Lark Spur." The mining company had begun construction of the spur in October 1901 at Revere (later Dalton) on the RGW's Bingham Branch and continued to the lower portal of the mining company's Dalton & Lark Drain Tunnel. The spur was completed in January 1902 and was operated by the mining company with a Shay locomotive. (Interstate Commerce Commission Reports, Volume 26, p. 809; 26 ICC 809; the sale was dated November 3, 1903; Engineering News, July 24, 1902, p. 59; "Industry of Destiny: Copper in Utah", in Utah Historical Quarterly, Summer 1963, page 273) The line was four miles of standard gauge railroad. (LeMassena, p. 111)

December 26, 1903
"Dalton & Lark main incline is down upwards of 45 feet below the 1,000, with about 400 feet to go to reach the Mascot (main tunnel) level." (Deseret News, December 26, 1903)

December 27, 1903
"An important work of this company in recent months was the completion of the Mascotte drain tunnel at the Dalton & Lark properties, which is over 6,000 feet in length. These properties are now drained and mining commenced on lower levels." (Salt Lake Herald, December 27, 1903)

January 9, 1904
"During December the Bingham Con. company shipped 1,000 tons of excellent ore from the Fortune mine. Shipments from Dalton & Lark, Brooklyn and Fortune continue to average 150 tons daily, and from the Commercial 300 tons. As the Dalton & Lark is now perfectly drained by the tunnel, and the Brooklyn nearly so, driving of the tunnel may not be resumed until spring. It continues to discharge a great volume of water, with beneficial results to several neighboring properties."(Deseret News, January 9, 1904, "Bingham Reviewed")

March 30, 1904
Work was to resume on the Mascot tunnel, extending it to drain the Dalton & Lark main incline, "work was suspended last fall." (Salt Lake Mining Review, March 30, 1904, "Around The State")

The Dalton & Lark tramway "winds around the hills for five miles in order to cover a bee line distance of two miles" taking ore to the spur of Rio Grande Western. "Gravity takes the cars down and electric locomotives haul them back, thirty-five at a load." (Salt Lake Mining Review, March 30, 1904, "Activity At The Dalton & Lark")

"The famous Mascot tunnel, designed to afford an outlet to all of the groups of the Bingham Con., and to provide drainage, now has been bored into the mountain a distance of nearly 8000 feet and is almost under the Dalton & Lark workings. It is the intention of sending it 7000 or 8000 feet further." "A stream of water as large as a creek is now flowing out of the tunnel and down into the valley where it is used for irrigation." "The tunnel has just been equipped with a new electric locomotive, which arrived from the General Electric company's works this week." (Salt Lake Mining Review, March 30, 1904, "Activity At The Dalton & Lark")

May 1, 1904
"Work was resumed in the Mascot (Dalton & Lark) tunnel a few days ago, and it will now be extended under the D. & L. incline and into Brooklyn ground as rapidly as possible." (Salt Lake Herald, May 1, 1904)

January 1, 1905
"...is tapped by the Mascotte tunnel, which has a length of 7,500 feet. The lowest workings are 1,100 feet from the surface,..." (Salt Lake Herald, January 1, 1905)

February 19, 1905
The Dalton & Lark and Lead mines would be opened up by the Mascotte tunnel "within ninety days." (Salt Lake Herald, February 19, 1905)

March 20, 1905
The following comes from the March 20, 1905 issue of the Salt Lake Tribune:

The famous Mascot tunnel, designed to afford an outlet to all of the groups of the Bingham Con., and to provide drainage, now has been bored into the mountain a distance of nearly 8000 feet and is almost under the Dalton & Lark workings. It is the intention to send it 7000 or 8000 feet further, and at various points upraises and crosscuts will be sent off to cut the numerous vein systems opened by the upper workings on the various groups. A stream of water as large as an ordinary creek is now flowing out of the tunnel and down into the valley, where it is used for irrigation.

The tunnel has just been equipped with a new electric locomotive, which arrived from the General Electric company's works this week. It is a powerful little giant and will haul sixty tons of rock out of the tunnel at a load.

The power plant is a notable feature of the equipment. Superintendent Lawton thinks it is a mechanical dream, and it is plain to be seen that it is the apple of his eye. This plant is furnishing compressed air for the operation of seventeen machine drills and seven hoists, and in transmission through a pipe line two miles long there is a loss of but four pounds. The compressor is operated by compound condensing engines. There is a battery of four marine boilers of l50 horse-power each. The coal is fed into the furnaces automatically, direct from the bins, and the furnaces are equipped with forced draft, the combustion being so perfect that the stacks emit but very little smoke.

The plant includes a well-equipped machine shop, at which any kind of heavy repair work can be handled. (Salt Lake Tribune, March 20, 1905)

March 30, 1905
"In the neighborhood of 300 men are now employed and about 400 tons of lead and copper ores are being shipped from the Dalton & Lark workings daily with enough blocked out to keep up these shipments for a year or more. The ore is conveyed to the terminus of the R.G.W. spur over a tramway which winds around the hills for five miles in order to cover a bee-line distance of two miles. Gravity takes the cars down and electric locomotives haul them back, thirty-five at a load." (Salt Lake Mining Review, March 30, 1905; partial text, with the remaining text duplicating the above Tribune article)

March 31, 1905
"An important development has occurred at the Bingham property which, according to one of its officials, adds at least $1,000,000 to the value of the property, says a Boston publication. It seems that the Lark vein has been encountered in driving the Mascot tunnel at a depth 400 feet below any of the workings in the Dalton & Lark property." "This strike was made Thursday last and while the extent and character of the vein at this depth has not been determined, assays have been showing 12 per cent copper, 40 ounces of silver and 29 per cent iron. At another point the assay shows 2 per cent copper, 29 ounces of silver and 30 per cent iron. The vein is said to be 8 feet wide." "The Mascot tunnel will be connected with the shaft on the Dalton & Lark property within 30 days when the tunnel will perform the service for which it was primarily designed; that is, the transportation of ore, thus avoiding the expense of hoisting." (Deseret Evening News, March 31, 1905)

May 22, 1905
"The Mascot tunnel is now in good running order; it is electrically equipped, and very shortly will handle ore from 75 cents to $1 a ton cheaper than ever before in the history of the mine." (Salt Lake Tribune, May 22, 1905)

May 28, 1905
"All the ore from the Dalton & Lark properties will hereafter be handled through the tunnel, which, in comparison with hoisting costs, will mean a great saving in expense." (Salt Lake Herald, May 28, 1905)

December 16, 1905
The following comes from the December 16, 1905 issue of the Deseret Evening News newspaper:

During the year 1905 the Mascotte tunnel has cut all of these veins. The Lark vein has over 1,000 feet of development work on this level, 700 feet westerly from the intersection of the tunnel and the vein, and 300 feet easterly. These drives east and west are in ore their entire length. A large tonnage of lead has been opened on the east side, while to the west the values run largely in copper.

From a point on this level (actual level not given) connection was made on the Lark vein with the upper workings of the mine by a vertical raise to the 1,250-foot level, thence to the 1,070-foot level, by an inclined winze, equipped with a gravity skip. All ores now mined from the upper levels are dropped to the 1,070 and 1,100-foot levels, and from there, loaded into a skip and dropped into a chute on the Mascotte tunnel level, from which point all the ores are transported to the railroad ore bins through the Mascotte tunnel, a distance of 8,200 feet, a five-ton electric motor being utilized for this purpose, making a round trip from the loading station in the mines every 30 minutes. All ores mined are moved to the surface in this manner.

Connection is also made from the Mascotte tunnel levels by a continuation of the inclined winze and gravity skip down to a large lead stope, which has been developed on the tunnel level to the east of the intersection of the Mascotte tunnel, thus affording two independent thoroughfares for dropping the ore into the Mascotte tunnel ore bins. No hoisting or pumping has been done on this property for some time past, but a shaft is maintained which connects with all of the workings, and is kept in commission for the purpose of lowering timber, tools, etc.

These combined properties have been producing from 200 to 300 tons of copper ore daily for the past year, the product being shipped to the company's smelter, located on the Rio Grande Western railway at West Jordan, Utah, via a branch line from Revere station on that company's branch to Bingham. From 50 to 100 tons of lead ore is also produced daily which is shipped to the smelter of the American Smelting & Relining company at Murray, Utah. (Deseret Evening News, December 16, 1905)

February 9, 1906
Engineers in the employ of F. A. Heinze were visiting Utah examining the Bingham Consolidated property. Heinze had opened negotiations to purchase control of the company, and friends in Utah had been advised via telegram to begin buying the company's stock. Heinze was in control of Bingham Consolidated by March 11, 1906. Heinze was reported as having purchased 30,000 shares, of 150,000 shares outstanding (20 percent ownership), at $30 per share. Heinze visited the Bingham Consolidated property on April 21 and 22, 1906. (Salt Lake Herald, February 9, 1906; Salt Lake Tribune, February 10, 1906; Salt Lake Herald, March 11, 1906; April 6, 1906; April 21, 22, 1906)

(The "Heinze" interests included F. Agustus Heinze, Arthur P. Heinze, and Otto C. Heinze. -- The Copper Handbook, Volume 7, 1907, page 1112.)

(The following comes from The Copper Handbook, Volume 7, 1907, page 1117: "The United Copper Co. is a securities holding corporation solely, and was organized along much the same lines as its former great rival, the Amalgamated Copper Co. [which owned Anaconda Copper], but owing to the settlement of the war between the Amalgamated and the United Copper interests, in February, 1906, by the selling of the Heinze holdings to the Butte Coalition Mining Co., the status the United Copper Co. has been changed materially." United Copper Co. began business in April 1902 as the owner of stocks and bonds of various subsidiary mining and holding corporations in the Butte district. The settlement of suits and counter-suits with Amalgamated brought United Copper a reported $14 million. Production by United Copper's subsidiary companies during 1905, was 27,081,350 lbs. fine copper, but will be small for 1906, owing to sale of all of the principal mines, in February 1906.")

(On November 24, 1906, control of Ohio Copper Company passed to F. Augustus Heinze, as a subsidiary of his United Copper Company.)

(Read the Wikipedia article about F. Augustus Heinze)

The manipulation of United Copper stock, which included Ohio Copper and Bingham Consolidated, was the cause of the Panic of 1907. Investigation of the cause of the panic resulted in the creation of the Federal Reserve System in 1913.

(Read the Wikipedia article about the Panic of 1907)

(On February 9, 1907, ground was broken for the new 2,000-ton mill on the Ohio Copper Co., at the mouth of the Mascotte tunnel, on the Lark side. The Mascotte tunnel was to be extended an additional 7,500 feet [1-1/2 mile] to reach both the Ohio and Commercial properties.)

February 9, 1907
The Mascotte tunnel, already 9,000 feet in length, was to be extended 3,000 feet to reach both the Ohio Copper property, and the Commercial mine. When the Ohio Copper property is reached, the tunnel will cut into the Ohio Copper ore bodies 800 feet below its current depth. When the tunnel reaches the Commercial property, it will cut into the Commercial ore body 500 feet below its current depth. Shafts were to be sunk on each property to meet the Mascotte tunnel. "A monster new compressor" was being added at the mouth of the Mascotte tunnel to furnish air to both the Bingham Consolidated mines, and the Ohio Copper mine. (Salt Lake Herald, February 9, 1907; Inter-mountain Republican, February 24, 1907)

"The Mascotte tunnel is being hurried in the direction of the Bingham Consolidated company's Commercial group of mines and the Ohio properties, as well. Before the new mill is completed it is the intention to have the Ohio opened down to the tunnel level in order that ores from that property can be carried direct to the bins of the mill. To hasten this underground campaign it is said that a monster new compressor plant will be placed at the mouth of the Mascotte tunnel and that it will be made to supply power for both the Bingham company and the Ohio mines, there is practically no doubt." "In order to accommodate the greatly increased force of men that will soon be employed by the Bingham and Ohio companies at the point mentioned, another lodging house with accommodations for at least 200 men is to be erected at once." "Lark, as the little settlement at the mouth of the tunnel is called, will develop into quite a pretentious town during the present year. It boasts a population of between 200 and 300 now and by June 1 it is expected that at least 500 men will find employment there. Including families, that means the place will contain 1,000 or more souls." (Salt Lake Herald, February 9, 1907)

June 6, 1907
The ore from the Brooklyn mine was still being brought down to Lark by way of the four-mile electric tramway, which was to be extended at Lark to allow the Brooklyn ore to be brought to the new Ohio Copper mill. (Salt Lake Herald, June 6, 1907)

August 27, 1907
The Bingham Central Railway was organized to build a railroad between Salt Lake City and Bingham.

(Read the corporate information about the Bingham Central Railway.)

September 1907
One of the Boston newspapers, in the name of the Boston News Bureau, ran a story about F. Augustus Heinze and his entrance as an investor in Utah mines. (Deseret News, September 17, 1907)

His first venture was with the Bingham Consolidated company, "...which has heretofore not attained a very great amount of prominence, except in unfulfilled promises. When organized, that company immediately built a large smelter to treat its ore before it had the ore. Hence the smelter operations have been largely on custom ores and net profits to Bingham Consolidated stockholders have been disappointing."

"When Mr. Heinze became interested in Bingham Consolidated the most valuable asset was a large tunnel, known locally as the Mascotte tunnel, which was planned to open the Dalton & Lark mines of the Bingham Consolidated at depth and provide drainage. The tunnel provided the drainage but failed to open the ore expected hence the operations of this big tunnel to date have not been productive of net results. This tunnel has cost the Bingham Co. over $30,000. It is six feet high and six feet wide and has penetrated the mountains for a distance of 9000 feet, or 1-3/4 miles."

"At about the time Mr. Heinze became interested in the Bingham Consolidated, he also purchased control of Ohio Copper Co., which adjoins Utah Copper Co."

"Soon after acquiring the Ohio Co. Mr Heinze arranged with the Bingham Consolidated Co. to extend the Mascotte tunnel 3000 feet farther to the Ohio Copper Co., the Ohio Co. bearing this extra expense, thereby putting the Ohio ore bodies 800 feet below the previous lowest workings. He immediately set about to build a 3000-ton concentrator at the mouth of the Mascotte tunnel. This tunnel will also be extended to open the Commercial properties of the Bingham Consolidated 500 feet deeper than the present lowest workings."

(Wikipedia article about F. Augustus Heinze and the financial panic of 1907)

(Read more about Ohio Copper Company, 1903-1951)

As early as September 1907, there were plans to separate the Mascotte tunnel from other Bingham Consolidated holdings, and organize it as a separate company: "...such as the Mascot tunnel which can be made of great value in solving transportation problems in Bingham." (Salt Lake Herald, September 26, 1907)

October 16, 1907
Negotiations began in Boston to separate the Mascotte tunnel from Bingham Consolidated, which was to receive a benefit of lower transportation costs as a result, as well as the right for the Ohio Copper company to process the Bingham Consolidated ore at its new Lark mill for less costs than other mills. (Inter-Mountain Republican, October 16, 1907)

November 13, 1907
"Mr. Heinze does not own control of the Bingham [Consolidated] company, his ownership consisting of but 10,000 shares, for which he paid $30 per share or a total investment on his part of $300,000. This investment is now selling in the market for $60,000. The Bingham Consolidated Mining & Smelting company has proved a failure both as a mining and smelting proposition." "The company has outstanding 150,000 shares of stock, par value $50, which sold at at that price in 1902 and are now selling in the market for $6. It also has $1,000,000 of bonds and floating debt of rising $400,000. Smelting operations have been conducted at a loss for some time." (Salt Lake Herald, November 13, 1907)

December 24, 1907
Bingham Consolidated closed its Salt Lake valley smelter.

When it opened in 1901, Bingham Consolidated's smelter was the second copper smelter in the Salt Lake City area. Its fires "will be extinguished within the next few hours." The Utah Consolidated's Highland Boy smelter had been the first copper smelter (opened in 1899), and the United States smelter was the third. Judge Marshall's decree was to take effect on January 6, 1908, shutting down all smelters in Salt Lake Valley due to sulfur and arsenic emissions causing damage to farmers' crops. (Deseret News, December 24, 1907)

(Additional information about the Salt Lake valley smelter smoke case can be found in Michael Church's excellent article "Smoke Farming: Smelting and Agricultural Reform in Utah, 1900-1945" in Utah Historical Quarterly, Volume 72, Number 3, Summer 2004) (Download as a PDF; link may become obsolete)

(Although there was very little coverage in the local newspapers, the smelter smoke suit likely included a financial settlement for the farmers from the smelting companies. This sudden financial drain was likely the cause of the failure of Bingham Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company in late 1907. Or, maybe the company declared bankruptcy to avoid having to pay any such settlement. More research is needed.)

January 2, 1908
"Bingham Consolidated also has a lease of 10 percent of the capacity of the new Ohio mill, 200 tons daily, which has been erected near the mouth of the Mascotte tunnel. It is proposed that this capacity shall be used to treat a very large body of concentrating ore carrying values in lead, silver, copper and gold, which has been opened up in the Dalton & Lark Property." (Salt Lake Herald, January 2, 1908)

February 4, 1908
"Development work on the [Mascot] tunnel is being carried on at a distance of 300 feet from the main Ohio Copper ore body, yet at this distance a heavy mineralization has been passed through for a considerable distance which shows an average value of .6 per cent to as much as 3 per cent copper, and gold up to $1.20 to the ton.. This would indicate that the extent of the ore body is much greater than the engineers have contemplated in their reports." (Salt Lake Telegram, February 4, 1908)

Bingham Mines Company

April 7, 1908
The Bingham Mines Company was organized on April 7, 1908 in Maine as a reorganization of the Bingham Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company. Property comprises 500 acres in two groups: the Dalton & Lark group and the Commercial group. The Bingham Central Railway was sold to F. Augustus Heinze for $177,000 [no date mentioned]. The company's ore was shipped to the Yampa smelter in Bingham, until that smelter closed in 1909. The ores were then divided, with the silver-lead ore going to the Asarco smelter at Murray, and the copper ore going to the Asarco smelter at Garfield. (The Copper Handbook, Volume 11, 1914, page 118)

June 25, 1908
Bingham Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company was forced into an involuntary bankruptcy by creditors holding $400,000 in notes of debt from the company. The Bingham Mines Company, which had been organized to acquire the assets and interests of the Bingham Consolidated group, had hired an expert to examine the property. (Wall Street Journal, June 25, 1908)

August 16, 1908
The Bingham Central Railway company filed a condemnation suit against Bingham Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company for ownership of the Mascotte tunnel, and the water flowing through it. (Salt Lake Tribune, August 16, 1908)

February 22, 1909
"The final transfer of Bingham Consolidated Mining company property has finally been made to Bingham Mines company." (Salt Lake Tribune, February 22, 1909)

March 26, 1909
F. Augustus Heinze paid Bingham Mines Company $76,000 as partial payment for his purchase of the Mascotte Tunnel. An additional $100,000 was to be paid on April 1, 1909. The Bingham Mines property is only being operated in a small way due to the low prices of metals, and no active development is taking place. (Wall Street Journal, March 26, 1909)

April 14, 1909
F. Augustus Heinze paid Bingham Mines Company the final $101,000 owed for the purchase of the Mascotte Tunnel. Total purchase price was $177,000. The purchase, which was part of the financing package for the reorganization plan for the Bingham Consolidated Mining company, reduced the mining company's bonded debt from $903,000 to $675,000. (Wall Street Journal, April 14, 1909)

October 10, 1909
A new Yosemite Mines company was organized on recently virgin patented ground adjacent to the Bingham Mines property, and to the United States Mining property. (This was in the vicinity of the old Commercial and Old Jordan mines.) The mine opening used the existing Paradox tunnel near the upper terminal of the U. S. Mines aerial tramway, where new buildings and a compressor were to be built. The working face of the mine was on an incline plane 800 feet deep, but 1,270 feet southeasterly from the portal. The same ore vein was encountered on the Mascotte level, 1,800 feet below the new Yosemite portal, and the Mascotte would be used to ship the ore to the new Ohio Copper mill when it was completed. (Salt Lake Herald, October 10, 1909)

By mid December 1909, the new Yosemite Mining company was shown as being controlled by Bingham Mines company. (Deseret Evening News, December 18, 1909)

December 18, 1909
The Commercial property of Bingham Mines company was shut down when the Bingham Consolidated smelter at Midvale was shut down in December 1907. The Commercial was re-opened in June 1909 after a new smelting contract was signed with the Yampa smelter and mining resumed at the Commercial, shipping the ores over the Copper Belt railroad. The other Bingham Mines properties were the Eagle & Blue Bell at Tintic, and the Dalton & Lark on the eastern slope of the Oquirrh range east of Bingham Canyon, on which property the Mascotte tunnel is located. The Mascotte tunnel was to be extended to reach the Commercial property, 4,000 feet distant from its current ending in the Ohio Copper property, and about 1,100 feet below the current Commercial workings. (Deseret Evening News, December 18, 1909)

(The above Deseret Evening News article is quite long and includes an excellent and extensive summary of the Bingham Mines Company, its properties, and its future.)

(A very similar summary, almost a word-for-word duplication, was published in the January 9, 1910 issue of the Salt Lake Herald.)

September 24, 1910
To allow the expansion of its dumping grounds, Utah Copper purchased the surface rights in Copper Center Gulch from the Bingham Mines company. The purchase forced Bingham Mines to move about 12 buildings at its Commercial mine in Copper Center Gulch down about one half mile, to a place near the Niagara tunnel. "According to information that reached Salt Lake yesterday, the work of dumping waste in the newly-acquired territory will take place Monday." "Arrangements have been made with the United States company and H. S. Joseph for the use of the [Niagara] tunnel." The move started on September 15th and was almost complete. With the move, Bingham Mines company abandoned its use of the Lower Commercial tunnel and would close the mine. The Niagara tunnel would be expanded and extended about 300 feet to get under the old workings of Bingham Mines company's Commercial mine. The expansion would give Bingham Mines an additional depth of 200 feet, and about 500 feet on the dip of its ore body. "Until the work is extended under the ore bodies, shipments from the property will be stopped." A spur of the Copper Belt railroad served the portal of the Lower Commercial mine, and would be put down the canyon to serve the Bingham Mines as soon as the work had been advanced to the point that shipping could resume. (Salt Lake Herald, September 24, 1910)

The two tunnels of the Commercial mine, No. 1 and No. 2, both in Copper Center Gulch, were closed in September 1910 and an agreement made with the Utah Copper, Silver Shield, and Niagara mining companies to allow Utah Copper to take over the gulch as its dumping grounds, and to allow the Commercial ores to be shipped from the Niagara tunnel, after that tunnel was extended to cut into the Commercial ore veins. All necessary buildings were moved from Copper Center Gulch to the mouth of the Niagara tunnel. (The Copper Handbook, Volume 11, 1914, page 118)

March 24, 1911
"The work at tearing down the Bingham Consolidated smelter at Midvale has begun, a force of twelve men being engaged on the job. The plant will be disposed of in the best market procurable, and in this regrettable manner will be ended the career of a $1,000,000 plant in response to the suits of the farmers in the Salt Lake valley." "The Bingham Consolidated smelter was placed in commission in 1901, being successfully operated under the superintendency of William Nutting. The plant was closed down finally on December 26, 1907 when the court decided that the fumes from the stack were injuring surrounding vegetable and animal life." (Salt Lake Tribune, March 24, 1911)

May 7, 1911
Good ore and value was being found throughout the premises of the closed Bingham Consolidated smelter, just prior to it being dismantled. Under a lease contract, the former smelter manager, Herman H. Green, was finding good assay value, in gold and other metals, in nooks and cranies from spills and molten metal drippings that the mining company had previously thought unprofitable to identify, remove and process. (Salt Lake Tribune, May 7, 1911)

June 1, 1912
Bingham Mines began sinking a shaft from its Yosemite property to connect with its Mascotte tunnel. A raise of 280 feet from the tunnel had already been completed. Work was to begin "this morning" at the Yosemite' 800-foot level, with about 1,040 feet of downward work needed to complete the connection. When completed, the connecting shaft would be 2,240 feet in total depth from the top of the Yosemite shaft. (Salt Lake Tribune, June 1, 1912)

(Read more about the Yosemite mine)

(A "shaft" is a downward mine opening, starting at the surface. A "raise" is a mining shaft, or a "winze," that is opened from below. A "winze" is a mine opening similar to shaft, except its upper end does not reach the surface. An "adit" is a horizontal tunnel opened from the surface, or side of a hill or wall of a canyon, with enough slope to provide for the natural drainage of water. A "drift" is a horizontal mine opening that follows the mineral vein. A "crosscut" is similar to a drift, but is perpendicular to the drift.)

Prior to this extension, the Mascotte tunnel to the Dalton & Lark mine lay in an east-west direction. The extension to the Yosemite turned the tunnel in a southwest direction. The later extension to meet the Ohio Copper property took the tunnel in a west-southwest direction from the Yosemite. A later extension to the Commercial mine continued the southwesterly direction.

March 8, 1913
The entire Midvale holdings of the Bingham Mines Co., including the old Bingham Consolidated smelter, were sold to Utah Junk Co. on "Saturday" (March 8). (Salt Lake Tribune, March 9, 1913)

March 29, 1913
"Bingham Consolidated" was selling its ore to both American Smelting at Garfield, and to International Smelting at Tooele. Its own smelter had been closed, and in March 1913, they had sold the facility to Utah Junk Company. (Engineering and Mining Journal, March 29, 1913, p. 679)

April 6, 1913
"Bingham Consolidated" connected their Yosemite shaft with Ohio Copper's Mascotte Tunnel. (Engineering and Mining Journal, April 19, 1913, p. 828)

July 8, 1916
"Bingham Mines (Bingham) -- Dalton & Lark mine is producing over 100 tons daily, part of the output being lead-silver and part copper-iron sulphide ore. Conditions at the Yosemite promising." (Engineering and Mining Journal, July 8, 1916, Volume 102, Number 2, page 117)

On June 29, 1925 the Bingham Mines Company obtained a Sheriff's Certificate of sale of the property of the Yosemite Mines Company to satisfy a judgment and on March 1, 1927 secured a deed to the property comprising nine mining claims. (Billings)

On June 30, 1925 the Bingham Mines Company acquired the Ute Copper Company's group of 23 mining claims located in lower Bingham Canyon and a 1/2 interest in the Dixon mine adjoining from Thomas Weir; and on July 21, 1925 purchased the other 1/2 interest in the Dixon mine comprising four mining claims and three adjoining mining locations from Martha J. Watson. (Billings)

October 3, 1925
"Announcement was made on the 3d by the Bingham Mines Company that it had acquired from Honolulu interests control of the Montana-Bingham Consolidated Mining Company property, which is situated in the West Mountain mining district, Salt Lake county, comprising the Tiewaukee, Eddie and Fortuna groups and the Thrush claim, a total of 227 acres. A large part of this property adjoins the Winamuck & Dixon properties, recently acquired by the same company." "The Bingham Mines Company now owns and controls in Bingham, a total of 1843 acres. It is proposed to carry on extensive development work in the Montana-Bingham property with a view of putting it into the productive stage at as early a date as possible." (Salt Lake Mining Review, October 15, 1925)

In (date?) the Bingham Mines acquired a controlling stock interest and about ninety per cent of the bond issue of the Montana Bingham Consolidated Mining Company. (Billings)

(An article in the October 9, 1942 issue of the Bingham Bulletin newspaper showed that Montana Bingham Consolidated Mining Co. shipped 7,100 tons of ore of all classes. This indicates that Bingham Mines Company did not purchase 100 percent of Montana Bingham Consolidated's stock, and it was being kept separate due to minority shareholders.)

July 23, 1929
Bingham Mines Company was purchased by the United States Company. (Billings, page 31)