Jordan and Galena Mines

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(The focus of this research is the mines that made up the U. S. mine and its predecessors in Upper Bingham, and the railroad, aerial tramways, and transportation tunnels that moved the mines' ore to the mills and smelters.)

(These were two separate mining claims, that by late 1873, were being worked as a single mine.)

The Jordan and Galena were two of the earliest mining claims in Utah, dating from 1863. The two claims were located in the far upper regions of the main Bingham Canyon, and were successful mines from the very start. The two claims were adjacent end-to-end with each other and after a settlement of encroaching suit, by 1873 both claims were being worked as a single mine, usually known as the Old Jordan and Galena mine. Their success continued after they were purchased in 1879 by Liberty Holden using the proceeds of his sale of the Telegraph mine, also at Bingham. The two claims, along with several other adjacent and nearby claims in upper Bingham, formed the basis of the United States Mining company's property when it was formed in 1899.

Holden's sale of the Telegraph mine to a French consortium brought a sale price of an astounding $3 million. Liberty Holden used the proceeds to buy other claims in Bingham, and Utah and Idaho, most notably the Jordan and Galena claims..

Liberty E. Holden had come west in 1874 from Cleveland to manage the Nez Perces Chief mine for the owners, a group of Ohio and Michigan investors. After seeing the mine's potential, Holden bought out the group's interest and became sole owner, at which time, in May 1876, he changed the mine's name to the Old Telegraph Mining company, in honor of one its original claims, the Telegraph lode.

The new French owners of the Old Telegraph ignored advise about running their mine using established techniques for Bingham mines, and instead brought in their own engineers and managers. The mine production immediately failed to meet expenses within six months, and for the next 12-15 years, the only production (in the range of 500-1000 tons per month) was from leasers. The French tried suing the previous owners, and after two appeals, lost their case, which was finally settled in 1896. The previous owners, including L. E. Holden, showed that they had not withheld any information, including taking the prospective buyers on several tours of the mine itself. The judge essentially said, "buyer beware" and the case was closed.

The most important Bingham claim that Liberty Holden bought with his new fortune was the nearby Old Jordan mine, as well as the South Galena mine. Using modern techniques of mining engineering, as well as some good old fashioned luck, the Old Jordan and Galena mines became very good producers. His son, Albert Holden (born in 1866), took a degree in 1888 from Harvard and MIT in mining engineering, and used his own skill and luck on the Galena mine, which he bought from his father in 1889. The senior Holden had moved back to his home town of Cleveland in 1885, using his fortune to buy the Plain Dealer newspaper. Alfred Holden eventually owned a controlling interest in the Old Jordan and Galena Mining company, which he reorganized in March 1899 as the United States Mining company. He moved back to Cleveland in 1899 or 1900, but continued to travel between Utah and Boston, where the U. S. company had its headquarters. The growth continued and in 1906, United States Mining merged with United States Smelting & Refining, to become United States Smelting, Refining & Mining company, a name almost everyone familiar with the history of Bingham canyon might recognize.

The following comes from USGS Professional Paper 38, pages 232, 233:

The West Jordan claim was located September 17, 1863, as a portion of ground staked by twenty-five men composing the Jordan Silver Mining Company. This is the earliest recorded mining location in Utah.

The Jordan mine, which includes the properties now known as the "Jordan" and "South Galena" mines, is located on the north slope of Bingham Canyon, about halfway between Bear Gulch and the head of the main canyon, in the Jordan limestone.

It extends from the Neptune on the west to the Story on the east. It also includes the Orphan Boy and Northern Light tunnels, on the Commercial limestone, and extensive workings upon the Galena fissure below the Jordan limestone.

The Jordan was incorporated in 1864, under the laws of California, as Jordan Silver Mining Company, by Gen. P. E. Connor. In 1870 the property was purchased by J. W. Kerr, Isadore Morris, and others, who erected the Galena smelter. After working the mine three years they sold it to Carson and Buzzo, who constructed a wooden flume (15 by 9 feet) 12 miles long, at a cost of $120,000, to furnish water (to the smelter) for power. After they failed, in 1875, it was acquired by the Galena Silver Mining Company, which built the Galena smelter (5 stacks) on the Jordan River; in 1877 by the Jordan Mining and Smelting Company, and in 1879 by the Jordan Mining and Milling Company.

At that time, lead was being extracted with much success by L. E. Holden, in conjunction with operations at the Telegraph mine. From 1880 to 1888 special attention was devoted to rich oxidized gold ores and lead-hearing fissures. Cheaper smelter charges, adopted in 1888, allowed the exploitation of the galena bodies which underlay the carbonates.

In 1890 the Old Jordan, the Galena, and many other mining properties were consolidated, and lead sulphide was exploited on a large scale. The shipment of lead ore, as recorded, increased from 6,000 tons in 1896 to 39,000 tons in 1897. Since the property passed into the ownership of the present company, search for shoots of copper sulphide has been actively pushed, but the only shipments of ore have been made by leasers.

The following comes from "Department Of The Interior, Statistics And Technology Of The Precious Metals," 1885, page 409:

It is the oldest mine in the territory. The mine was purchased by J. W. Kerr & Co., who, in 1872, erected the Galena smelter (one stack). Afterward the property was bought by Carson & Buzzo, who constructed a wooden flume (5 by 9 feet) 12 miles long, at a cost of $120,000, to furnish water power. They failed in 1875, and the Galena Silver Mining Company became the owner. In the same year the Galena smelters (five stacks) were built on the Jordan river. In 1877 the property was sold to the Jordan Mining and Smelting Company, which Company was reorganized in 1879; with but slight change of ownership, under the name of the Jordan Mining and Milling Company.


September 17, 1863
The West Jordan claim was located in Bingham Canyon, and the West Mountain (Quartz) Mining District was organized on September 17, 1863.

November 17, 1863
The Jordan Silver Mining Company was incorporated in accordance with the laws in California, and was recorded in Salt Lake County, Utah Territory. "That the object of Said Corporation, is to Carry on, and conduct the business of Mining on a Certain Vein or lode known by the name of Jordan Lode and Situated and recorded in the District of West Mountain, Great Salt Lake County, Territory of Utah, known as the Mine of the Jordan Silver Mining Company in Bingham Canyon, Great Salt Lake County, Utah Territory." (Salt Lake County Recorder, Mining Deeds Book 'A', page 5; courtesy of Steve Richardson)

January 26, 1864
The Galena claim was located and registered. (Stenhouse, "Rocky Mountain Saints," page 714, citing E. D. Buel's "Mining Districts of Utah") (Buel also states that the West Jordan, the Galena, and the Empire mines were all located in the 1863-1864 time period, and were all adjacent to each other.)

August 16, 1864
"The Jordan Company have sunk a shaft 150 feet in depth, and run a tunnel to the distance of 230 feet - the last 25 of which has been very difficult and tedious labor, owing to the exceeding hardness of the rock through which it is necessary to pass in order to reach the lead. About 40 feet more will carry the tunnel to the main ledge, at a depth of over 180 feet; and there can be no question as to the value of the mine when once fairly in working order." (Union Vedette, August 16, 1864)

May 6, 1871
"West Jordan" tunnel is pushing forward rapidly for their ledge. The "Galena" mine is also being sunk upon, for the purpose of preparing it for the extraction of ore." (Salt Lake Herald, May 6, 1871)

September 7, 1871
William A. Hickman of Fairfield, Utah County, Utah Territory, sold for $150, his share and interest in the Jordan Silver Mining company, to Isadore Morris, of Salt Lake City. (Salt Lake County Recorder, Mining Deeds Book 'B', page 899; courtesy of Steve Richardson)

(Isadore Morris was a private in the California Volunteers, and was among 227 soldiers mustered out of the U. S. Army on October 4, 1864. -- Union Vedette, October 6, 1864) (Born in 1844, Morris moved to Bingham and later became prominent in mining circles. He was living in Salt Lake City when he passed away on December 6, 1906.)

October 26, 1871
"Jordan Silver Mining Co. vs. Galena Co. -- We learn that the Jordan Silver Mining company is about commencing a suit against the Galena company, Bingham canon, for trespassing on its ground. This suit will involve as we understand, quite a number, if not all, of the questions arising in mining law. The 'Jordan' is reported to be the first location under mining laws in this Territory." (Salt Lake Herald, October 26, 1871)

(A settlement of this trespass suit may have resulted in a subsequent single owner for both mining claims.)

April 13, 1872
"The Famous Galena Lode" "This lode is well developed and shows immense bodies of carbonate of lead. There is probably no mine west of the Rocky Mountains that can show so many tons of ore in sight as this mine." (Utah Mining Gazette, April 13, 1872)

February 14, 1873
The Galena claim had received its patent from the U. S. government. (Salt Lake Tribune, February 14, 1873)

June 30, 1873
John W. Kerr had asked that the Surveyor General survey the "Jordan Silver Mining Company claim" for the purpose of obtaining a patent. He had also asked that the "Last Chance B" claim be surveyed. Both claims were at Bingham. (Report of the General Land Office, Secretary of the Interior, 1873, page 154) (The Last Chance claim was in Carr Fork.)

July 10, 1873
"Galena Mine, more frequently called the Jordan mine, Alfred Gauchat, Superintendent, covered by U. S. patent, one of the largest and most extensive mines in Bingham canon. The mine is extensively developed by a number of tunnels, shafts, inclines, drifts, open cuts, etc." (Salt Lake Herald, July 10, 1873)

August 14, 1873
"Michigan capitalists continue to invest in Utah mining property. The Last Chance and Galena mines in Bingham, were sold this week to some of them for $25,000." (Pioche Record, August 14, 1873)

(These news items from August and September 1873 indicate that the Jordan and Galena mines were likely sold in the first or second week of August 1873. Recall that since late 1871, the Jordan and Galena claims were being worked as a single property. The Last Chance claim was in Muddy Fork, a branch of Carr Fork at Bingham.)

August 22, 1873
The following comes from the August 22, 1873 issue of the Deseret News:

A few evenings since, sitting on the cool veranda of the Townsend House, I casually remarked to James Carson, formerly of the old firm of Carson & Close, at Ontanagon (on Lake Superior, on Michigan's Upper Peninsula), that it was strange that we should meet here, when on canvassing the crowd, I found thirteen men whom I had met at Lake Superior in 1845; James Carson, Thomas M. Busso, Joseph Busso, Thomas M. Low, Wm. Walbridge, Joseph E. Gay and many others, practical men, who made money out of copper on Lake Superior, and are now here to increase their means out of the fabulous silver mines of Utah.

Carson & Busso have invested here since last December over $400,000, and have a mine now in operation that will, within sixty days, produce 100 tons of bullion each day at a profit of $30 each ton or $3,000 profit each day. The ore smelts as easy as lead, is quarried almost as cheap as gravel, and grows richer as they go down. They have ore in sight in the Galena and Jordan mines, Bingham Canyon, 25 miles from here, that will produce over two millions of dollars. Their partners are among the millionaires of Boston, who were with them in Lake Superior.

Michigan has invested here within the last year over $900,000 in spite of the efforts of the Detroit press to suppress all information from this Territory.

(Identical text was published on both August 22nd, and September 3rd, 1873.)

(Carson & Buzzo -- Joseph Buzzo, in July 1873, superintendent of the Silver Hill in Markham Gulch, later part of the Red Wing group)

(Carson & Buzzo -- James Carson; Thomas M. Busso; Joseph Busso; all from the copper mines of Lake Superior, were registered at the Townsend House hotel in Salt Lake City in September 1873.)

September 9, 1873
The following comes from the September 9, 1873 issue of the Salt Lake Tribune:

Bingham, September 8th, 1873 -- Your correspondent on Saturday last (September 6th), visited the Galena and Jordan mines, which are located near the head of main Bingham canyon, about three miles southeast of town. The top of the mine is near the summit of the mountain, from which a magnificent view is had of Salt Lake valley and the Wasatch range. The property is owned by parties in Boston and Salt Lake, and Carson & Buzzo are the agents and managers of the property in Utah. Mr. Thos. H. Low is Superintendent, and Alfred Gauchat, foreman. The mines are in the immediate vicinity of each other, and were discovered by soldiers of Gen. Connor's command, in September 1863, and are said to be the first mining locations made in Utah. An immense amount of work has been done upon the galena mine. There are 600 feet of shafts and 1,200 feet of drifts and tunnels, besides an open cut 200 feet long and 120 feet deep through a solid body of ore. In addition to these developments, the ledge has been stripped on the surface for a distance of 700 feet, showing an amount of ore estimated at 75,000 to 100,000 tons, which averages $22.00 in silver per ton, and fifty per cent lead. The vein is about seventy-five feet in width, and the ore body twenty-eight feet. The mine also contains a considerable amount of milling ore, which averages from eighteen to twenty-five dollars per ton.

There are at present thirty-five or forty men employed on the mine, twelve of whom are getting out ore, and the balance stripping the ledge. The present daily yield of ore is about fifty tons. The amount stripped last month was 1,100 tons, which will probably be doubled the present month. The ore is reduced at smelting works owned by the company near Sandy, called the Galena Smelting Works, and consists of one cupola furnace and two McKinsey furnaces. The freight on the ore is four dollars per ton. The bullion is sent east, and the lead is of an excellent quality and commands the best price in the market.

October 28, 1873
"On Sunday morning Messrs. Carson & Buzzo left for Boston, where they will meet their cooperators in their large mining enterprises in Utah, and will prepare to do an immense business during the coming winter and next spring. Their mines in Ophir, the Miami and Utah Queen, and their property in Bingham, the Galena, West Jordan and Last Chance, are producing immense quantities of ore, and their four smelters, it is expected, will soon furnish bullion in large amounts. Their investments in Utah, already very large, are to be greatly increased on their return, which will be soon, as Utah is now the home of these gentlemen. Utah cannot have too many of such men." (Salt Lake Herald, October 28, 1873)

November 16, 1873
The following comes from the November 16, 1873 issue of the Salt Lake Herald:

Learning a few days ago of a remarkably large and rich "strike" of ore in the Galena mine, Jordan Hill, Bingham Canyon, owned by Messrs. Carson & Buzzo, we paid a special visit to the locality for the purpose of examining it, and the mine of which report has said so much. The property is easy of access and situated about two and a half miles above the terminus of the Bingham Canyon railroad, which also runs between the smelting works of the company now in operation, on the river Jordan, and those in course of construction, switches being now put in to the works, some seventeen miles from the mine. This necessitates only two and a half miles of transportation between the mine and the railroad, and the propriety of building one of the elevated Hallidie tramways for this distance is under consideration. (A Hallidie tramway was a recently patented wire rope tram for the movement of ore; represented by Henrie Brothers, an advertiser in the Salt Lake City newspapers.)

On arriving at the mine, through the courtesy of Captain Low, Messrs. Carson & Buzzo's experienced and gentlemanly manager, and Mr. Gauchet, foreman of the mine, we were enabled to make is full inspection with the view of giving the Herald readers reliable facts relative to the property. Though speaking of it as one mine it is in reality two locations running parallel, one the Galena -- having a linear extent of 2,200 feet by 140 feet in width; the other -- the Jordan -- a linear extent of 5,200 feet, with an equal width. This really makes close on a mile and a half, in linear extent, of a mine that reveals, as developed, a true vein all the way from twenty to a hundred and fourteen feet in width, of mineral.

On walking through the tunnels, shafts and cross drifts, and passing along the open cuts, some as deep as forty feet in ore, every step revealed the fact that the most exaggerated reports did not half reach the reality. The vein which in places stands out of the earth in great masses of mineral, has been stripped for a distance of 1,000 feet; 1,300 feet of tunneling has been done; 790 feet of shafts sunk; and 280 of cross drifts cut; linking a total of 370 feet of surface and subterranean explorations through carbonate and galena ores, of the wonderful width given above. These ores assay from forty to seventy per cent in lead, and carry from twelve to forty ounces in silver; and are so easily mined that drilling and blasting are comparatively unknown in the mine. We watched the workmen bringing down masses of the ore with the pick as easily as though they had been working at an ordinary earth bank. Indeed the ore is mostly decomposed, and to the inexperienced eye looks more like friable earth then mineral.

From careful measurements made in the tunnels, drifts, shafts and open cuts, there are now more than a hundred thousand tons of ore in sight, notwithstanding the large quantities already extracted, as development and extraction have progressed together, every day adds to the actual amount of ore revealed, while the company realizes a steady revenue. The ore in sight, on the most careful computation, must be worth in the gross between seven and eight millions of dollars, and will yield over three millions of profit to the fortunate owners.

January 16, 1874
"The Jordan and Galena mines owned by Carson & Buzzo, will in a few days increase the amount of their shipments to 60 tons per day. This ore is consigned to the Galena furnaces, and is smelted with Reed & Benson ore." (Salt Lake Tribune, January 16, 1874)

February 20, 1874
"The Jordan and Galena mine is the oldest location in the district. It was sold last year by John W. Kerr, Isadore Morris and others, to Carson & Buzzo. It is a contact vein, varying in width from four to fifty feet; formation limestone. It has been worked almost continuously since the first location. The developments on the mine are as follows: tunnels, 2,000 feet; drifts, 1,400 feet; shafts, 400 feet; inclines, 300 feet; traces and crosscuts, 1,000 feet; open cut, 500 feet. The ore low grade, consisting of carbonates and galena. Amount of ore removed from mine, 9,000 tons." (Salt Lake Herald, February 20, 1874)

April 4, 1874
"The Jordan is the oldest mine in the territory, being the first location made by General Conner's men. It has been abandoned several times, and as often relocated. The present owners are Messrs. Carson & Buzzo, of Detroit, they having purchased it for $325,000. Here we find one of the largest bodies of mineral known to miners, the vein being from 40 to 125 feet in width. The hanging wall is porphyritic granite, and the foot-wall limestone. These walls are found to be one of the features of the middle belt. Veins lying between two stratas of rock are known to miners as "contract" veins, because they indicate ore to a great depth, all other mines are looked upon with suspicion, unless development proves them to be mines. The Jordan is now shipping forty-five tons of ore daily to its smelters on Jordan River. It is estimated that there is now in this mine 50,000 tons of ore in sight, of which 30,000 tons is first-class; being a sufficient quantity to run the smelters four years to come. The company has at present three furnaces in operation, and are constructing six more, four of which are reverberation furnaces; when completed the whole will have capacity of 150 tons daily." (Inter-Ocean [Chicago], April 4, 1874)

April 9, 1874
John W. Kerr served public notice to his co-owners (Edward McGarry and N. B. Eldred) of the Jordan Silver Mining Company mine and the Jordan Lode claim, that if they did not pay their share of labor costs, amounting to $180 each, he would take full ownership of the claim, in accordance with Section 5 of the Mining Law of May 10, 1872. They were to comply with the notice within 180 days. (Deseret News, April 15, 1874)

August 12, 1874
As further confirmation that the Jordan and Galena claims were being worked as a single mine: "The immense Galena and Jordan mine, which also consists of two lodes. This is owned by Carson & Buzzo. Mr. Gauchat, the superintendent." (Salt Lake Herald, August 12, 1874)

February 23, 1875
The U. S. Secretary of the Interior reaffirmed his decision against the Galena Silver Mining company, in favor of the Kempton Mine. (Sacramento Daily Union, February 23, 1875)

June 25, 1875
"To Lie idle. -- It is now asserted that work will not be resumed on the Jordan and Galena mine, Bingham canyon, until 1876." (Salt Lake Herald, June 25, 1875)

July 28, 1875
James Carson, of the firm Carson & Buzzo, died of injuries after being struck by a street car in Oakland, California. "About three years ago Mr. Carson came to Utah from the copper mines of Lake Superior, where he had long been engaged, and in which we believe he was interested at the time of his death. The first purchase of the firm of which he was the head, was in Dry Canyon, Tooele county, and this was immediately followed by the erection of a two stack smelter at Stockton. Next, Carson & Buzzo bought the celebrated Jordan and Galena mine of Bingham, which they successfully worked for some time; and last year they erected at West Jordan the most extensive smelting works in the west. They carried on the mining and smelting business on a large scale, furnishing employment to hundreds of men, spent immense sums of money in developing and working their property, but finally, last autumn, the concern succumbed to the pressure of the times, and collapsed."

(Also in July 1875, there was a suit before the Third District court, Carson & Buzzo vs. Galena Silver Mining company. -- Salt Lake Tribune, July 9, 1875)

(A Thomas W. Buzzo, identified as formerly with the Carson & Buzzo firm, arrived in Salt Lake City on April 13, 1880, and was involved in the organization of the Live Pine Mining Company on April 28, 1880 -- Salt Lake Herald, April 13, 1880; May 1, 1880)

September 8, 1875
The Jordan mine was about to start up again, hiring a force of men to work the mine in the coming winter. (Salt Lake Tribune, September 8, 1875)

April 16, 1876
The Jordan mine was producing 400 tons of ore per month. The Jordan and Galena smelter at Bingham Junction was running with three furnaces. (Salt Lake Herald, April 16, 1876)

January 1, 1877
The Jordan mine is shown among the mines that were shipping ore: "Jordan, owned by Jordan Mining Co." (Salt Lake Tribune, January 1, 1877)

June 3, 1877
"The Jordan, which recently fell into the hands of the Old Telegraph company, is employing ten men, who are repairing the mine and prospecting with good results." (Salt Lake Tribune, June 3, 1877)

November 3, 1877
In March last the Jordan Silver Mining Company, which succeeded the Galena Silver Mining Company, was wound up on petition of the bondholders. The mines in Bingham Canon and the works on the Jordan River, including the long water power canal, were sold and bought in by L. E. Holden, the principal creditor. Holden immediately tore down the old furnaces and replaced them by three new ones, remodeled and improved the works generally, and is now building two new furnaces. In addition to these improvements, he is also erecting concentration works immediately adjoining. The remodeled and improved works are designed more especially for working ores from the Old Telegraph Company's mines. The Jordan and Galena mines are now being worked, and it remains to be seen what this much-abused property will prove under good management. This property, when put upon the market, had a future second to none in Utah, but the selection of managers without proper business qualifications has brought it to bankruptcy. (Engineering and Mining Journal, November 3, 1877, page 333)

April 26, 1880
The articles of incorporation of the Old Jordan Mining and Milling Company were filed in Salt Lake County. The company was to work the Jordan Silver mine and the American Flag mine, both in Bingham Canyon. Liberty E. Holden was shown as an incorporation, president and treasurer of the new company. (Salt Lake Herald, May 1, 1880)

(On May 7, 1879, L. E. Holden sold his interest in the nearby Old Telegraph mine, for a reported $3 million. He used some of those proceeds to purchase the Old Jordan property, as well as other mining properties in Utah and the West.)

(Read more about Liberty E. Holden)

June 27, 1880
L. E. Holden was shown as owning the "Old Jordan Mine and Mill." (Salt Lake Herald, June 27, 1880)

March 30, 1881
"Prof. L. E. Holden is already working his mine the Old Jordan and is making the most of this weather." (Salt Lake Herald, March 30, 1881)

The following comes from The Leading Industries of the West, published in 1884:

The Old Jordan Mining And Milling Company. -- The property owned by this company is located at Bingham, Utah, and the outputs so far have made a most favorable impression in mineral circle, while the promises for the future could not be brighter. The Company's mill is located at West Jordan twelve miles south of Salt Lake City on the Jordan river. It is not yet entirely completed but when it is will be the most perfect of its size in the Territory. It will be a sixty-stamp mill and contain all the latest improved appliances, costing upwards of $125,000. While waiting for the completion of its mill the company is developing its mining property and is meeting with success far beyond its most sanguine expectations. Already a perfect mountain of ore has been mined and at the lowest estimation the amount in sight cannot fall short of 800,000 tons. The mine yields two-thirds gold and one-third silver, and the average assay as shown by mill tests is $25 per ton. The Old Jordan, one of the mines owned by this company, is one of the pioneer mines of this country and is as favorably and familiarly known as any in the Rocky Mountain region. The company was first organized in 1871 but has changed hands several times, until the property and business came under the present proprietorship and control. During the year 1871 the company was one of the largest producers of lead in the country, the business of that year amounting to upwards of $2,500,000. The officers of the Old Jordan Milling and Mining Company are: Mr. L. E. Holden, president and general manager; Mr. Walter Brown, vice president; Judge R. Harkness, secretary and treasurer, and Mr. B. B. Van Deusen, engineer and assistant manager. The capital stock is $10,000,000, divided into 100,000 shares.

January 1, 1885
The Jordan mine, and the South Galena Consolidated Mining company, were listed as being among Holden's mining properties, which also included Utah Gem Mining company at Ophir; Lucky Boy Mining company at Butterfield; and the Old Telegraph of Idaho at Wood River. (Salt Lake Tribune, January 1, 1885)

February-April 1887
In accordance with the U. S. mining law, in late April 1887, at the end of the required 60-day period that began on February 25th, Old Jordan Mining and Milling Co. was given a patent to the "Excelsior" and "Mary Ann" lodes. Liberty E. Holden was shown as the "attorney in fact."

By geographic description, Bingham Canyon was the larger canyon from its mouth at Lead Mine (just west of today's Copperton), to the upper reaches in the south, a distance of about 4-1/2 miles, where it split between Bear Gulch and Galena Gulch (Highland Gulch until the late 1890s). The area just below the junction became known as Upper Bingham, and after 1914 as Copperfield. Bear Gulch was the location of the Old Telegraph mine, and Highland Gulch (later Galena Gulch) was the location of the Old Jordan, Galena, and South Galena mines.

July 13, 1889
The Old Jordan Mining and Milling company sold the Galena mine, etc., to Albert F. Holden, and Albert F. Holden sold the Rip van Winkle mine to the Old Jordan Mining and Milling company. (Salt Lake Herald, July 13, 1889)

December 25, 1889
"The Old Jordan still keeps going, as does the South Galena, much to the credit of Mr. Hazlegrove, the genial superintendent who brought those properties up and made them second to none." (Salt Lake Herald, December 25, 1889)

August 27, 1891
The Old Jordan and Galena Mining company filed its articles of incorporation with Salt Lake County.

The following articles of incorporation were filed with the probate clerk yesterday: Old Jordan and Galena Mining company. Capital stock $2,000,000, divided into 20,000 shares of $100 each. The incorporators are Liberty E. Holden. of Cleveland, O., and Albert F. Holden, William S. McCornick, William M. Bradley and Clarence E. Allen, of Salt Lake City. These parties constitute the board of directors with L. E. Holden, president; A. F. Holden, vice-president: W. S. McCornick, treasurer and W. M. Bradley, secretary. The property which they propose to operate is the Jordan Silver Mining company's lode, the Galena, American Flag, Excelsior and Mary Ann, situate in the West Mountain mining district, Salt Lake county. (Salt Lake Herald, August 28, 1891, "yesterday")

"The Jordan, the Spanish and the Old Telegraph were paralyzed for years by the exhaustion of their oxidized ores; but as methods have improved, work has been resumed, and their output is yearly increasing, shipments comprising remnants of surface carbonates, generally requiring concentration, and galena, more or less mixed with iron pyrites, which has to be roasted and in much of it the pyrites dressed out. All these mines have concentrating mills, in which, by a careful adjustment of jigs, screens and tables, determined or regulated by experimenting, galena and iron pyrites are obtained as separate products, cheaply and without great loss." ("Utah, A Complete and Comprehensive Description of the Agricultural, Stock Raising and Mineral Resources, Compiled from the Latest Reports of 1892," published by Union Pacific Railroad, 1893)

August 23, 1895
"Manager Bert Holden of the Old Jordan and Galena at Bingham reports the productions of the camp at 6000 tons per month at the present time. The properties over which he is presiding furnish about one half the total output. The percentage of gold ores has increased very rapidly during the year, and this, with the heavy increase in lead productions, has put the Old Reliable in very prosperous condition." (Spanish Fork Herald, August 23, 1895)

(Read more about Albert F. Holden)

October 25, 1896
"Manager Holden, while in Bingham this week stated that there was no immediate prospect of the Old Jordan and Galena resuming operations, but much depended on any material improvement in the ore market giving promise of being healthy and permanent. The company's mines have not been sacrificed." (Salt Lake Herald, October 25, 1896)

March 16, 1899
"In part payment for the Old Telegraph, for which the purchasers have agreed to pay $550,000 upon the delivery of the deeds, that are now in escrow, the purchasing company yesterday paid into the banking house of McCormick & Co. $275,000, the balance to be shelled out on March 30th, when, at Cripple Creek, Colorado, the shareholders in the Conglomerate Mining company, owner of the Old Telegraph, will meet to ratify the big transaction. These details disposed of, the United States Mining company will take formal possession and its campaign formally begin." At the same time, the United States company paid $1 million in New York for the Old Jordan and its companions, and $500,000 in Philadelphia for the Niagara. (Salt Lake Tribune, March 16, 1899)

April 12, 1899
"The concluding act in the transfer of the Old Jordan & Galena and Old Telegraph properties in Bingham, to the United States Mining company, a corporation recently organized in Maine, with a capital stock of $10 million, fully paid, was completed yesterday, when deeds of conveyance were executed." " No mention was made in any of the documents of the transfer of the Niagara Mining & Smelting company's property, the third Bingham gold and copper property taken in by the new United States company, but this is accounted for in the fact that this property was acquired by purchase of the stock, which stock was absorbed." (Salt Lake Herald, April 13, 1899)

(Read more about the United States Mining Company)

South Galena Mine

(On May 7, 1879, L. E. Holden sold his interest in the Old Telegraph mine, for a reported $3 million. He likely used some of those proceeds to purchase the South Galena property, as well as other mining properties in Utah and the West.)

(The South Galena mine, should not be confused with the original Jordan/Galena mine. The South Galena was a separate claim located south of the original Jordan/Galena claim.)

February 1881
SOUTH GALENA CONSOLIDATED. This property was incorporated in February last, under the above title, and was formerly known as the Live Yankee and Galena Extension. The Galena Extension tunnel is in 400 feet and still being advanced at an average of two and a half feet per day. The vein will average twenty feet in width, and shows strata of very fine silver-lead ore. This tunnel was run for the purpose of tapping the ore-body which was found in the upper workings, and which yielded such a large amount of high grade ore No. 1 The vein has been cut at irregular intervals almost the entire length of the property. Still higher up is another tunnel in 100 feet, and a drift started from the face on the vein. And the latter proves to be over fifty feet in width. This vein is a continuation of the old Galena vein owned by the into the company, and extends into the Live Yankee patent from this tunnel. An upraise has been made on the ore ninety feet, and connects with the ore-body in the easterly end of the Live Yankee Mine. At the point of connection the ore-body is four feet thick, and is exposed in the drift over thirty-three feet, with various sinks and raises, and in all probability $50,000 worth of ore is in sight. On the west end of the Live Yankee patent, and nearly 1,000 feet from the last mentioned ore-body, a shaft was sunk forty feet, and a very strong body of ore uncovered, which assays from 15 per cent lead and eighty-five ounces in silver to 65 per cent lead and 899 ounces in silver per ton. For the amount of development this is by far the most promising property in the district. (Salt Lake Herald, August 5, 1881)

January 1, 1885
The South Galena Consolidated Mining company, and the Jordan mine at Bingham, were listed as being among Holden's mining properties, which also included Utah Gem Mining company at Ophir; Lucky Boy Mining company at Butterfield; and the Old Telegraph of Idaho at Wood River. (Salt Lake Tribune, January 1, 1885)

March 28, 1887
"In the afternoon through the courtesy of Mr. Wm. Ross, I went through the Jordan mine, a property worked in connection with the Galena by the same company of which Prof. L. E. Holden is the principal stockholder and Superintendent. In the Jordan there are immense bodies of ore in sight, notwithstanding that the mine is being worked very near the surface." (Salt Lake Democrat, March 28, 1887)

In accordance with the U. S. mining law, in late March 1887, at the end of the required 60-day period that began on February 25th, South Galena Consolidated was given a patent to the "First South Extension Galena Lode." Liberty E. Holden was shown as the "attorney in fact."

December 17, 1887
"South Galena Consolidated Mining Company - This company has just completed the sinking of the shaft to a depth of 240 feet. Cross-cutting has commenced at the bottom. On the level 100 feet above they had a large body of ore which ran first-class 50 per cent lead, 30 ounces silver and $50 in gold. Ore lot of 100 tons averaged $64 in gold, and it is thought this body of ore will be struck at the present depth. There is a large lot of second-class on the dump, and much of the dump being good concentrating ore, it is being worked over at the rate of thirty tons per day -- day shift only -- reducing to seven tons concentrates running about 50 per cent lead, 80 ounces silver and $19 in gold." (Engineering & Mining Journal, December 17, 1887, page 456)

July 13, 1889
The Old Jordan Mining and Milling company sold the Galena mine, etc., to Albert F. Holden, and Albert F. Holden sold the Rip van Winkle mine to the Old Jordan Mining and Milling company. (Salt Lake Herald, July 13, 1889)

December 25, 1889
"The Old Jordan still keeps going, as does the South Galena, much to the credit of Mr. Hazlegrove, the genial superintendent who brought those properties up and made them second to none." (Salt Lake Herald, December 25, 1889)

June 14, 1890
"SOUTH GALENA MINE. -- This is one of Bingham's favorite mines and one that promises to be a steady producer for generations. This is one of the true fissures of the camp. Its vein cutting all the formations, starting in quartzite, cutting through it and the limestone. The property embraces some forty claims and has been producing steadily for three years. At the present time the production aggregates about forty tons a day of first-class ore and concentrates, the product of its own mill not more than a quarter of a mile from the mine. This mill is also a pronounced success as it saves nearly all the value which the ore contains. assays from the tailings seldom giving as much as an ounce in silver or one per cent in lead. This wine is also supplied with a railroad of its own, which conveys all the ore to the depot, three and a half miles away by its own gravitation. Coming back three mules are hitched tandem and the cars loaded with coal, lumber and the various other supplies required." (Salt Lake Times, June 14, 1890)

April 20, 1891
Albert F. Holden is shown as the superintendent of the South Galena mine. (Salt Lake Tribune, April 20, 1891)