To Move A Mountain
Shovels At Bingham - Shovel Builders
Index For This Page
This page last updated on July 31, 2011.
(This is a work in progress; research continues)
(These timelines focus on the companies and specific models of shovels used by Kennecott at Bingham.)
From the 1910s through the early 1960s, the cable shovel was the principal means of digging and loading earth. The 1960s saw the acceptance of hydraulic machines as an alternative to cable-type shovels. In the mining industry, cable shovels have been, and are presently, the machine of choice for large-scale operations worldwide. Bucyrus Erie, Marion, and P&H produced the bulk of the shovels used large scale mining operations. They went on to dominate the mining industry with cable shovel model offerings that could not be matched, let alone produced, by any other manufacturer. (Eric C. Orlemann, Power Shovels, page 61)
The following comes from Keith Haddock's Giant Earthmovers:
The Bucyrus Foundry and Manufacturing Company was established in 1880, and the present-day Bucyrus International Inc. can boast a rich heritage of specialization in the crane and excavator industry. From the smallest yard crane to some of the largest machines ever to roam the earth, no other company has built such a wide variety of types and sizes of excavating machines. From its floating dredges, tractor equipment, hydraulic excavators, drills, cranes, walking draglines, wheel excavators, and other special equipment, the name Bucyrus has been synonymous with moving the earth.
Several famous names in excavator manufacturing have been acquired by Bucyrus over the years. Bucyrus-Erie Company was formed in 1927 when the Bucyrus Company took over the Erie Steam Shovel Company. Other excavator acquisitions include the Vulcan Steam Shovel Company (1910), Atlantic Equipment Company (1912), Monighan Machine Company (1932), Milwaukee Hydraulics Corporation (1948), Ransomes & Rapier Ltd. (1988), and Marion Power Shovel Company (1997). The company changed its name from Bucyrus-Erie Company to Bucyrus International Inc. in 1996.
Bucyrus-Erie's large two-crawler excavators were a natural progression from its smaller excavators, and filled the gap between these and its giant stripping shovels. From the 1920s, Bucyrus pioneered the "quarry and mine" electric shovels. In the early 1950s, the entire Bucyrus line of electric shovels was replaced by the 110-B, 150-B, and 190-B redesigned models, covering sizes up to 9 cubic yards. These models moved away from the twin-stick, rack-and-pinion type of crowd drive in the earlier design, to the single tubular-stick, rope crowd type. From here the trend was upward in size, keeping pace with growing truck capacity.
The magnificent diesel-electric 210-B came out in 1961 as an 8-yard dragline on two crawlers. In 1972, Bucyrus introduced the 295-B 21-yard shovel, popular for over a decade. The 34-yard 395-B followed in 1979, the first to utilize AC motors and B-E's patent computerized "Acutrol" control, a solid-state computer-driven system. The present two-crawler shovel range spans from the 195-B to the 495-B. In 1990, Bucyrus introduced the 495-B, the largest Bucyrus mining shovel, with a dipper range from 40 to 80 cubic yards and an operating weight of 1,228 tons. (Keith Haddock, Giant Earthmovers, pages 126-128)
Bucyrus Foundry and Manufacturing Company was founded by Daniel Parmelee Eells, an Ohio industrialist, in 1880 in Bucyrus, Ohio, and became Bucyrus Steam Shovel and Dredge in 1890. Two years later the company moved to Milwaukee, which has been its home ever since. After a financial reorganization in 1896 the name was changed to the Bucyrus Company, and it remained under the control of the Eells family until 1911. That year a merger with a competitor, the Vulcan Steam Shovel Company, resulted in a dilution of the Eells holdings, although family involvement in the company continued until 1952. Already a leader in the shovel industry, Bucyrus further consolidated its position in 1927 by merging with Erie Steam Shovel Company, the leading manufacturer of small shovels, to become Bucyrus-Erie Company. (William Haycraft, Yellow Steel, page 83)
The steam shovels built by the Bucyrus Foundry and Manufacturing Company earned a solid reputation for reliability in railroad construction. The 70C (chain hoist) was one of the most popular in the early twentieth century. Employed mostly on railroad construction, this type of heavy-duty half-swing machine became known as a railroad shovel. (Bucyrus, Making The Earth Move For 125 Years, page 12)
At 107 tons in working order, the 95-C was the largest shovel available in its day. The carbody supporting it measured 44 feet long by 10 feet wide. The 95-C was widely sold throughout the world from rock quarries in Illinois and Indiana to copper mines in Utah, and from iron ore mines in Sweden to copper mines in Spain. (Bucyrus Heavy Equipment, page 132)
First railroad style (non-rotating) steam shovel was built.
Bucyrus supplied 77 of the 102 steam shovels used to dig the Panama Canal, through 1907. (Marion Power Shovel supplied another 24.)
The Bucyrus Company, Atlantic Equipment Company, and Vulcan Steam Shovel Company merge to form "Bucyrus Company", a public corporation.
Vulcan's "Giant" line of steam shovels commenced in 1886 and expanded into many models including some of the largest at that time. In 1909, the Vulcan steam shovels ranged in size from 40 to 120 tons, and the forward-looking company posed some stiff competition for Bucyrus. The lattice boom design shown here is a distinctly Vulcan feature. (Bucyrus Heavy Equipment, page 134)
The Atlantic Equipment Company was consolidated into the Bucyrus group in 1911. As a division of the American Locomotive Company, Atlantic was established in 1902 and had gained a fine reputation for railroad-type shovels, which excelled in hard rock mining. The shovels were distinguished by their massive boom structure and heavy-duty proportions. (Bucyrus, Making The Earth Move For 125 Years, page 21)
Introduced in 1907, the Atlantic Class 45 was a mid-sized machine and was one of the later models sold by Bucyrus for a short while after its takeover of the company in 1911. The 45-16-2 1/2 with 2 1/2-yard dipper weighed 73 tons in operation. Its main engines were 10-inch by 10-inch bore and stroke, and its 46-inch diameter boiler measured 20 feet in length. (Bucyrus Heavy Equipment, page 136)
The Atlantic Class 80 included the unique Atlantic boom embodying all hoisting machinery. Some photographs show Atlantic Model 80s with crawler tracks, which would not have been original equipment. (Bucyrus Heavy Equipment, page 137)
The Atlantic Class 80 was the largest of the Atlantic shovels, and one that Bucyrus adopted after the company takeover. Atlantic's distinguishing and advanced features were: a very strong triangular-type boom solidly mounted on the turntable, all hoisting and crowding machinery mounted on the boom enabling a straight-line pull to the boom point, and steel ropes in lieu of chains. (Bucyrus Heavy Equipment, page 137)
The Model 110-C was billed as the largest and most powerful railroad shovel ever built when introduced about 1912, and specified for the toughest digging assignments or where blasting was restricted, the 110-C was equipped with either a 5- or 6-yard dipper and weighed 127 tons. Main engines were sized at 13-inch bore and 16-inch stroke. (Bucyrus Heavy Equipment, page 133)
The 3.5-cubic-yard Bucyrus 78C was introduced in 1915. (Power Shovels, page 16)
Caterpillar style mounting was first incorporated on a Bucyrus shovel.
One of the last Bucyrus railroad shovels to be introduced was the 103-C in 1922. It was also the first railroad shovel to be equipped with crawler tracks. (Bucyrus Heavy Equipment, page 133)
In 1922, Bucyrus started to offer crawler mounts for use on its railroad-type shovel designs, freeing them from the constraints of the steel rail. (Power Shovels, page 16)
The innovative 120-B (introduced in 1925) was the world's first "Quarry and Mine" shovel, a heavy-duty Ward-Leonard electric machine built with the ruggedness of the old part-swing railroad shovel, yet with the flexibility of a fully revolving shovel. Initially the 120-B was rated at 4-cubic-yards capacity and tipped the scales at 168 tons. It was ruggedly built with massive castings and riveted construction. It featured wide-spaced dipper handles with rack-and-pinion drive and motor mounted on the boom. Like the 100-B, the early shovel version of the 120-B could be recognized by its forward-positioned A-frame. When electric welding came of age in the mid 1930s, both the 100-B and 120-B shovels graduated from riveted construction to electric-welded construction. While retaining their rugged steel castings for carbody and revolving frames, their welded booms and other assemblies permitted increased dipper capacities to 4 yards and 5 yards respectively with no significant gain in overall machine weight. The 120-B revolutionized mass excavation methods and is the machine recognized as the forerunner of today's high-capacity Bucyrus electric mining shovels. Production of the 120-B ended in 1951, after a production total of 303 machines. (Keith Haddock, Bucyrus Heavy Equipment, pages 65, 212, 218)
The Bucyrus Erie 120-B is considered the earthmoving industry's first true, heavy-duty, full-revolving, two-crawler mining shovel. Released in 1925, the 120-B was equipped with a 4-cubic-yard dipper and was meant as a replacement for railroad-type loading shovels in the mining industry. Though primarily an electric-powered shovel, some of the earliest units were specified with steam power. (Power Shovels, page 64)
The 120-B was introduced as the world's first fully rotating electric mine and quarry shovel designed for loading rail cars or trucks. First built in 1925 as a 4-cubic yard machine, it was soon upped to 5-cubic yard capacity and revolutionized the shovel industry, selling over 300 around the world until 1951.The 120-B was the forerunner of a long line of Bucyrus electric quarry and mine shovels. It was soon joined by the similarly-designed 3-1/2-cubic yard 100-B (1926); the 2-1/4-cubic yard 75-B (1928); the 6-1/2-cubic yard 170-B (1929); and the 3-1/4-cubic yard 85-B (1935). With the exception of the 75-B, all remained in the line until the early 1950s. (Keith Haddock, Bucyrus, Making The Earth Move For 125 Years, page 72)
During the 1930s, the ruggedness and somewhat overdesign of the 100-B (introduced in 1926), plus the introduction of welded components, allowed an increase to 4 cubic yards. The Ward-Leonard electric machine was equipped with a single vertical swing drive as opposed to two on the larger 120-B. Standard boom length was 32 feet. The 100-B was a very successful machine, staying in production until 1950 by which time its operating weight increased to 136 tons. Production of the 100-B ended in 1950, after a production total of 150 machines. (Keith Haddock, Bucyrus Heavy Equipment, pages 62, 212, 218)
The Bucyrus Company was consolidated with the Erie Steam Shovel Company to form Bucyrus-Erie.
More than 10,000 Bucyrus shovels, cranes, draglines and dredges had been produced by 1929.
Use of steam powered excavators superseded by electric drives.
During the 1930s, the ruggedness and somewhat overdesign of the 100-B, plus the introduction of welded components, allowed an increase to 4 cubic yards. The Ward-Leonard electric machine was equipped with a single vertical swing drive as opposed to two on the larger 120-B. Standard boom length was 32 feet. The 100-B was a very successful machine, staying in production until 1950 by which time its operating weight increased to 136 tons. (Bucyrus Heavy Equipment, page 62)
When electric welding came of age in the mid 1930s, both the 100-B and 120-B shovels graduated from riveted construction to electric-welded construction. While retaining their rugged steel castings for carbody and revolving frames, their welded booms and other assemblies permitted increased dipper capacities to 4 yards and 5 yards respectively with no significant gain in overall machine weight. The 120-B revolutionized mass excavation methods and is the machine recognized as the forerunner of today's high-capacity Bucyrus electric mining shovels. (Bucyrus Heavy Equipment, page 65)
For an 8-cubic-yard mining shovel in the 1950s, they didn't come any better than the Bucyrus Erie 190-B. Originally introduced in 1952, the electric-powered 190-B was an extremely popular shovel for the company. Weighing approximately 275 tons, it could be found operating in quarries and mines the world over. In 1968 it was replaced by the 12-cubic-yard 195-B. (Power Shovels, page 65)
Bucyrus began producing its Model 190-B electric shovel; production continued through 1976. (Keith Haddock, Bucyrus, Making The Earth Move For 125 Years, page 156)
At Bingham, Kennecott shovels 16 and 21 were Bucyrus 190-B. They were in service in 1979 and 1980. By 1983 only shovel 16 remained in service.
First Model 395B electric mining shovel commissioned with AC electric power system.
Bucyrus-Erie Mining Machinery Division became a wholly-owned subsidiary of the newly created parent company, Becor Western Inc.
Bucyrus-Erie sold the Construction Equipment Division to Northwest in 1985, which became Terex the next year.
Bucyrus-Erie sold the Marion Power Shovel Company to Dresser Industries.
Model 395B and 495B AC shovels were introduced.
Model 295B AC shovel introduced.
Model 395B and 495B shovels introduced.
Bucyrus-Erie changed its name to Bucyrus International, Inc.
Bucyrus acquired the Marion Power Shovel Company.
Model 595B shovel announced as a successful descendant of the acquired Marion 351M model.
Model 495B 100-ton capacity shovel introduced.
Concept model 795B, 135-ton capacity knee action shovel, was introduced at MINExpo 2000.
Model 495HR/HF shovels were introduced, incorporating best of product features from Marion and Bucyrus models, offering 110 -120 ton single pass capabilities.
July 18, 2010
Caterpillar announced that it would begin production
Caterpillar and Rio Tinto signed a five-year agreement for Caterpillar to furnish Rio Tinto's worldwide mining operations with surface mining equipment, including trucks, shovels, wheeled loaders, tracked tractors, and wheeled graders.
November 15, 2010
Caterpillar made an offer to buy the entire Bucyrus product line of mining shovels. Included in the planned changes was for Caterpillar to move its entire mining business headquarters from Peoria, Illinois to the Bucyrus plant at Oak Creek (South Milwaukee), Wisconsin.
January 6, 2011
Caterpillar, Inc., announced that it was suspending development of its own line of mining shovels, to be built at its plant in Aurora, Illinois. The decision, effective immediately, was reportedly in response to Caterpillar's pending acquisition of Bucyrus International, Inc., which had a comparable line of mining shovels, acquired by Caterpillar as part of its purchase of Terex's mining group in late 2009. (DieselProgressOnline, January 6, 2011, citing the Milwaukee Business Journal)
May 20, 2011
The U. S. Department of Justice approved Caterpillar's purchase of Bucyrus International. The proposed acquisition was announced in November 2010. The value of the acquisition was reported as $8.6 billion. (Caterpillar press release dated May 20, 2011)
July 8, 2011
Caterpillar, Incorporated completed its acquisition of Bucyrus International. On the same day, the Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China approved the purchase.
(with focus on shovels that worked, or may have worked at Bingham)
The following comes from Keith Haddock's Giant Earthmovers:
As one of the pioneering steam shovel manufacturers, Marion Power Shovel Company was established in 1884 as the Marion Steam Shovel Company at Marion, Ohio. Marion evolved into a leading manufacturer of excavating machines. The company went head to head with Bucyrus and manufactured similar products such as railroad shovels, dredges, cranes, walking draglines, and drills. Marion's excavator range extended from the smallest 1/2-yard shovel to the largest shovel ever put to work--the Marion 6360. This behemoth excavator worked at the Captain Mine, Illinois, with a 180-cubic yard dipper!
Marion achieved many notable "firsts" over the years. In 1911, the first long-boom stripping shovel hit the dirt in North America. The company followed it with a succession of record-breaking giant machines. In 1939, Marion entered the walking dragline business and produced some of the largest models in the world.
In the 1960s, Marion gradually withdrew from the small machine market, concentrating instead on large two-crawler excavators above the 10-yard class, walking draglines, and blast hole drills. However, the long-running 3-yard 101-M and 4 1/2-yard 111-M machines were produced at Marion until 1975, and in India under license for several years after that date.
Keeping pace with the increasing size of off-highway trucks, Marion designed the 57-yard capacity 301-M to load 240-ton trucks in three passes. The first of these 1,150-ton shovels was sold in 1985. In 1995, the 301-M was upgraded to the 351-M, which made it Marion's largest two-crawler shovel. It has a similar dipper range to its predecessor, and weighs 1,300 tons.
In 1997, two giants in the earthmoving business merged. Bucyrus International, Inc. (formerly Bucyrus-Erie Company) purchased Marion Power Shovel Company. The sale marked the end of a 113-year era of intense competition between two major players. (Keith Haddock, Giant Earthmovers, pages 130-132)
Marion produced 96 five-yard Model 92 shovels between 1909 and 1930. Marion started offering crawler mountings for its railroad shovels in 1923. (Marion Mining & Dredging Machines, page 8)
With a bucket capacity of six cubic yards, the Model 100 was Marion's largest railroad shovel. Between 1909 and 1926, Marion built 39 of these behemoths. (Marion Mining & Dredging Machines, page 9)
The four-crawler, 3-1/2-yard Model 70 electric shovel was a good example of the adaptation of the railroad-mounted, half-swing shovel to crawlers. Built between 1912 and 1930, 74 were produced. (Marion Mining & Dredging Machines, page 11)
The Type 4161 was a very successful shovel, with 206 units delivered between 1935 and 1964. Marion changed its shovel front design from single dipper sticks to twin sticks to better transmit load-related stresses from the dipper to the boom. (Marion Mining & Dredging Machines, page 32)
The Marion 4161 was one of the company's more popular mining shovels during the late 1930s and 1940s. Released in 1935, the 4161 was rated as a 6-cubic-yard shovel, and weighed 215 tons in shovel form. (Power Shovels, page 68)
Introduced in 1945, the 151-M electric shovel had a rated capacity of 7-1/2-cubic yards and was manufactured as recently as 1982, with 170 units produced. Electric shovels of this size were used most often in mines and quarries, but some also saw use in heavy construction. (Marion Mining & Dredging Machines, page 33)
Marion took the wraps off the first 151-M in 1945. Originally designed as an electric mining shovel of 6-cubic-yards capacity, the 151-M was soon adapted for dragline work with buckets up to 8 cubic yards, and as a 12-cubic-yard shovel for coal-loading duties. In 1970, Marion offered a diesel-electric version employing two Cummins engines providing 700 horsepower to independent electric motors for the hoist, swing, and crowd motions. In the 1960s, Marion gradually pulled away from the small "construction-sized" machine market, preferring to concentrate on the large mining machines such as stripping shovels, walking draglines, blast hole drills, and large two-crawler excavators. By the mid-1970s, the 151-M was the smallest excavator in Marion's product line. It continued until 1982 offering dippers up to 12 cubic yards. (The Earthmover Encyclopedia: The Complete Guide to Heavy Equipment of the World, page 215)
When Marion designed and built the first 191-M in 1951, at 10-cubic-yards capacity it was the world's largest shovel on two crawlers. Nearly all subsequent 191-Ms were electrically powered. One of the most successful mining shovels of all time, the 191-M continued in production until 1989, by which time it had been upgraded to carry a standard dipper of 15 cubic yards. (The Earthmover Encyclopedia: The Complete Guide to Heavy Equipment of the World, page 215)
In 1951 Marion introduced the 10-yard 191-M, claiming the title for the world's largest shovel on two crawlers. Later improvements more than doubled its rating to 22 cubic yards, and its demand required production to continue until 1989. Most were electric, but a few were built with diesel power. Several were built as draglines. (Marion Mining & Dredging Machines, page 35)
Marion built its first 191-M series mining shovel in 1951, and for a time it was the world's largest two-crawler shovel. The original 191-M was equipped with a standard 10-cubic-yard dipper, but later versions would get 11-cubic-yard units. Operating weight was 386 tons in diesel-powered form or 355 tons when configured as an electric shovel. (Power Shovels, page 68)
When Marion designed and built the first 191-M in 1951, at 10-cubic-yards capacity it was the world's largest shovel on two crawlers. Although nearly all subsequent 191-Ms were electrically powered, the first machine, sold to Western Contracting Corporation, was diesel powered. One of the most successful mining shovels of all time, the 191-M continued in production until 1989, by which time it had been upgraded to carry a standard dipper of 15 cubic yards. (Keith Haddock, The Earthmover Encyclopedia, page 215)
Marion Electric Shovel Production
|Type 4161||1935||1964||206||First with twin dipper sticks||In 1979-1980, Kennecott had 11 Type 4161 shovels in service; by 1983 the total had been reduced to five shovels|
|151-M||1945||c. 1982||170||7-1/2 yards||By 1983, Kennecott had a total of 12 151-M shovels in service.|
|191-M||1951||1989||10 yards||later increased to 22 yards||By 1983, Kennecott had a total of seven 191-M shovels in service.|
The Marion Steam Shovel Company was established in August 1884.
Based on Henry M. Barnhart's patent for an improved swing mechanism, the Marion Steam Shovel Company was founded in 1884 in Marion, Ohio. Financial backing came from Edward Huber, a Marion industrialist and threshing machine manufacturer who would later build farm tractors, static road rollers, and motor graders under the Huber brand. Early Marion shovels were marketed under the Barnhart name. The Marion company remained closely held until its acquisition by Dresser Industries in 1977. (William Haycraft, Yellow Steel, page 83)
By 1911 90 percent of all large bucket steam shovels and draglines were produced in Marion Ohio, which was also the headquarters of Osgood Steam Shovel, Fairbanks Steam Shovel and General Excavating Corporation. (Competitor Bucyrus Steam Shovel was founded 15 miles from Marion in nearby Bucyrus, Ohio (Bucyrus relocated soon thereafter to Milwaukee, Wisconsin after Bucyrus city officials refused to approve expansion plans for the company.)
In April 1946, the Marion Steam Shovel Company changed its name to the Marion Power Shovel Company to more closely reflect its products.
In 1955, Marion Power Shovel Company acquired its crosstown rival, the Osgood Company, which manufactured shovels under the Marion-Osgood and Osgood brand names. Osgood's product line focused on shovels, cranes and draglines that were small capacity machines as opposed to Marion's line, which focused increasingly on high end strip mining draglines. Osgood also built road-ready mobile units that used Mack truck undercarriages.
The Marion Power Shovel Company was sold to Dresser Industries in 1976 for approximately $250 million. The Company grew from 1,500 employees in 1974 to over 3,200 employees by 1978 during the massive growth in coal mining demand of the late 1970's.
Dresser continued to push into construction and mining equipment with the purchase of the Marion Power Shovel Company in 1977, paying $126 million in cash and securities for the closely held company based in Marion, Ohio. Although results were not made public, Marion, at estimated sales of $350 to $400 million, was the second-largest power shovel maker after Bucyrus-Erie. At the time of its acquisition by Dresser, Marion's principal business included mining shovels for truck loading. (William Haycraft, Yellow Steel, page 271)
Kennecott Copper Corporation bought Marion Model 151-M (8 cubic yards) and Model 191-M (15 cubic yards) shovels as late as 1977.
Operating as the Marion Division of Indresco (the successor name to Dresser), Marion was acquired by Bucyrus International, Inc. in 1997.
Bucyrus International closed the Marion, Ohio works, (while retaining the brand name) ending shovel production and engineering as well as ending shovel production in Marion, Ohio.
Caterpillar acquired Bucyrus, International, including the Bucyrus and Marion lines of mining shovels. In October 2010, Caterpillar and Rio Tinto signed a five-year agreement for Caterpillar to furnish Rio Tinto's worldwide mining operations with surface mining equipment, including trucks, shovels, wheeled loaders, tracked tractors, and wheeled graders.
The following comes from Keith Haddock's Giant Earthmovers:
Harnischfeger Corporation (P&H) large crawler shovels and draglines have a long pedigree, going back to the company's founders, Alonzo Pawling and Henry Harnischfeger, in 1884. The company built its first excavator, the gasoline-powered Model 210 in 1914. It carried a 1-1/4-yard dragline bucket and remained in production until 1925. From this model, an extensive range was developed up to the early 1930s. In 1935, an entire new excavator line was launched, incorporating welded construction.
The first electric shovel was the P&H 1200WL, which was built in 1933. With 2-yard capacity, it was the forerunner of the present-day P&H mining shovel line. The basics of the modern P&H shovel, such as crowd motor mounted on the boom and twin handles to support the dipper, were incorporated into the early machine.
P&H was one of the few excavator manufacturers to intensively promote its line of electric shovels in the 1930s and 1940s. This gave P&H the capability to build excavators in sizes larger than the economic limit imposed by the fuel cost of diesel machines. When the going was good in the small "construction-size" market in the four decades from the 1920s, and hundreds of excavators were being sold each month, most makers were content to compete only in this size range. Although P&H did very well in the small machine market, its electric shovel expertise allowed it to continue to prosper after the small machine market dwindled in the 1960s. This mining machine success (spurred on by the popular 15-yard 2100-series electric shovels) allowed P&H to become the dominant force in the cable shovel industry. Today, the P&H 5700XPA version ranks as the world's largest excavator on two crawlers. (Keith Haddock, Giant Earthmovers, An Illustrated History, Crestline-MBI, 1998, pages 128-129)
After Harnischfeger introduced its first electric shovel in 1936, it promoted and developed this type of excavator intensively over the next two decades. This early experience positioned the company to build electric excavators in sizes larger than the economic limit of diesel machines, and paid off handsomely when sales of the small "construction-size" cable excavators dwindled in the 1960s. This mining machine expertise contributed largely to Harnischfeger becoming the dominant force in the mining shovel industry by the 1980s. In 1963, Harnischfeger shipped its first 15-cubic-yard electric shovel, the 390-ton Model 2100, a machine that would soon became the standard for large open-pit mines around the world. The upgraded 210013 of the same dipper range appeared in 1969, but weighed some 65 tons heavier. (The Earthmover Encyclopedia: The Complete Guide to Heavy Equipment of the World, page 220)
Harnischfeger kept pace with the increasing size of haul trucks, and industry demands for larger equipment to take advantage of economies of scale. It introduced larger shovels and improved the performance of its existing shovel models. A big jump in size occurred in 1969 when the first P&H 2800 shovels were shipped with dippers of 25 cubic yards. The 2300 followed in 1972 in the 20-cubic-yard class, and the same year P&H unveiled the world's largest shovel on two crawlers, the 5700, with dippers up to 44 cubic yards. The first 4100 was shipped in 1991 with a 56-cubic-yard dipper designed to load a 240-ton truck in three passes. This shovel incorporated state-of-the-art electronic control and integrated diagnostics, a means of alerting operator or maintenance personnel of any pending malfunction. (The Earthmover Encyclopedia: The Complete Guide to Heavy Equipment of the World, page 220)
Alonzo Pawling and Henry Harnischfeger join forces on December 1, 1884, starting up a small machine and pattern shop to craft and support high-quality components and assemblies for brick-making, beer-brewing, industrial sewing and other industrial equipment manufactured in and around Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Pawling & Harnischfeger rebuild and improve upon the design of a damaged overhead bridge crane made by another manufacturer. Soon after, industrial customers line up to order more bridge cranes built by "P&H" as the firm reorganizes and expands to meet demand.
In failing health, Alonzo Pawling decides to sell his interest in the business to his partner, Henry Harnischfeger. Pawling asks Harnischfeger to keep the "P&H" trademark on company products going forward. Harnischfeger agrees to keep the now well-known P&H trademark. "Pawling & Harnischfeger" becomes "Harnischfeger Corporation" led by Henry Harnischfeger.
Harnischfeger Corporation introduced its earliest earth-moving equipment.
P&H Model 206, a crawler-propelled power shovel equipped with a 1/4-cubic-yard dipper, becomes the first highly successful P&H earth-moving platform. P&H 206 and subsequent P&H 300-series machines were "convertible" into power shovel, backhoe, clamshell, dragline, construction crane, augur, backfill and magnet configurations.
P&H began converting its cranes and excavators from riveted construction to all-welded construction.
Harnischfeger Corporation introduced new Ward-Leonard drive electric excavators.
P&H introduced the Model 1500 as the first large DC electric drive shovel for use in mining.
P&H had lagged somewhat behind its competitors in the shovel industry, Bucyrus-Erie and Marion, by not offering larger, heavy-duty electric models. In 1944 P&H offered its first electric mining shovel, the 5-yard Model 1400. (William Haycraft, Yellow Steel, page 85)
P&H introduced a new-generation electric mining shovel featuring simpler control components and factory-installed wiring for faster field erection and commissioning.
Harnischfeger Corporation engineers developed "Magnetorque" electro-magnetic brake and control system to replace traditional friction mechanisms for greatly increased digging power and speed. Magnetorque revolutionized the heavy equipment industry and continued to be used on smaller electric shovels in the 21st Century.
P&H rolled out its new Model 1800 electric mining shovel -- the latest and largest heavy-duty digging machine in the P&H line with electronic control, centralized AC motor drive, and nominal 8 cubic yard dipper capacity.
P&H shovel maximum dipper capacity reaches 12 cubic yards to help meet growing demand for highly productive taconite and other hard-rock mining excavators.
After Harnischfeger introduced its first electric shovel in 1936, it promoted and developed this type of excavator intensively over the next two decades. This early experience positioned the company to build electric excavators in sizes larger than the economic limit of diesel machines, and paid off handsomely when sales of the small "construction-size" cable excavators dwindled in the 1960s. This mining machine expertise contributed largely to Harnischfeger becoming the dominant force in the mining shovel industry by the 1980s. In 1963, Harnischfeger shipped its first 15-cubic-yard electric shovel, the 390-ton Model 2100, a machine that would soon became the standard for large open-pit mines around the world. The upgraded 2100B of the same dipper range appeared in 1969, but weighed some 65 tons heavier. (Keith Haddock, The Earthmover Encyclopedia, page 220)
P&H shovel maximum dipper capacity increases to 15 cubic yards.
The P&H 2800 electric shovel debuted initially with a 25 cubic yard dipper capacity to help meet growing world demand for coal, iron and copper.
Harnischfeger kept pace with the increasing size of haul trucks, and industry demands for larger equipment to take advantage of economies of scale. It introduced larger shovels and improved the performance of its existing shovel models. A big jump in size occurred in 1969 when the first P&H 2800 shovels were shipped with dippers of 25 cubic yards. The 2300 followed in 1972 in the 20-cubic-yard class, and the same year P&H unveiled the world's largest shovel on two crawlers, the 5700, with dippers up to 44 cubic yards. The first 4100 was shipped in 1991 with a 56-cubic-yard dipper designed to load a 240-ton truck in three passes. This shovel incorporated state-of-the-art electronic control and integrated diagnostics, a means of alerting operator or maintenance personnel of any pending malfunction. (Keith Haddock, The Earthmover Encyclopedia, page 220)
P&H increased maximum dipper capacity on its 2800 shovel to 40 cubic yards. Also, P&H introduced "Electrotorque" solid-state control for DC motors.
P&H Mining Equipment launched the P&H 2800XPA shovel.
Harnischfeger Corporation acquired the Gardner-Denver line of large production drilling rigs.
Harnischfeger Corporation introduced the P&H Model 4100 series shovel line to help mines efficiently load new-generation 240-ton haul trucks. The P&H 4100 featured 85-ton dipper payloads.
Harnischfeger Corporation purchased the assets and interests of the Joy Mining Machinery Company of Franklin, Pennsylvania.
The P&H Model 4100 shovel evolves into the 4100A, featuring DC digital "Electrotorque Plus" drive.
P&H Mining Equipment introduced the P&H 4100XPB, with features tailored to mines utilizing haul trucks of up to 360-ton capacity.
Harnischfeger Corporation was forced into Chapter 11 bankruptcy by the failure of a major paper manufacturing business based in Indonesia and the subsequent default on numerous contracts, including $250 million owed to Harnischfeger Corporation.
P&H Mining Equipment, the above-ground mining arm of Harnischfeger Industries Inc., announced that the company had sold the first of its new Model 4100XPB shovel. The customer was Triton Coal Company for use in its North Rochelle mine in the Powder River Basin near Gillette, Wyoming. (Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, August 13, 1999)
P&H Mining Equipment introduced the P&H 4100BOSS, a higher-performance successor to the well-regarded P&H 4100TS. The BOSS featured many of the technology advances introduced on the P&H 4100XPB shovel.
Harnischfeger Corporation emerged from Chapter 11 reorganization under the name of Joy Global, Incorporated, a reflection of two strongest segments of Harnischfeger's previous widespread business interests. These segments were P&H for its above ground mining equipment, and Joy for its underground mining equipment. Harnischfeger had acquired Joy Mining Machinery Company in 1995. P&H Mining Equipment became a subsidiary of Joy Global.
P&H announced its 'C' series of shovels that incorporated the design features of the Centurion control platform, for improved reliability and productivity. The shovel line included five models: the 4100XPC, 4100C BOSS, 4100C, 2800XPC and 2300XPC. The first nine units were completed, and were in service by November 2007, including two Model 4100XPC shovels at Kennecott's Bingham copper mine.
P&H Mining Equipment rolls out next-generation shovels and drills, including the P&H 320XPC hard rock production drill, the P&H 4100C BOSS, P&H 4100XPC and P&H 2800XPC shovels featuring all-new operator cab environments and numerous other performance-enhancing breakthrough solutions driven by customer requirements.
P&H Mining Equipment also successfully introduced an AC-drive P&H 4100BOSS shovel. Increasing AC drive reliability and maintainability drives this departure from traditional P&H DC drive product offerings and the effort is launched and completed within a fast-track, 24-month time frame.
By 2010, the P&H Mining Equipment Company was a business unit of Joy Global, Inc.
Caterpillar and Rio Tinto signed a five-year agreement for Caterpillar to furnish Rio Tinto's worldwide mining operations with surface mining equipment, including trucks, shovels, wheeled loaders, tracked tractors, and wheeled graders.