HISTORIC AMERICAN ENGINEERING RECORD
INDEPENDENT COAL & COKE COMPANY
KENNILWOTH MINE WORKINGS
Location -- Carbon County, Utah; U.S.G.S. Quad: Helper, Utah
Dates of Construction -- 1907-1931. The majority of the construction necessary to produce coal in large quantities was completed during this period. Alterations and improvements were made almost continually to the property between 1907 and 1931.
Present Owner -- Price River Coal Company Helper, Utah
Present Use -- Not in use
Significance -- The opening of the Kenilworth Mine in 1907 marked the beginning of the second phase of development in Utah’s coal industry. The first phase was marked by a complete monopoly of the railroads over coal production, and the second phase was marked by the entrance of a number of local independent producers into the industry. The Independent Coal & Coke Company’s mine was the first of the independents established.
David B. Merrill, November 14, 1983
Cultural Resource Management Services
Brigham Young University
Coal mining has been integral to the industrial and commercial development of Utah since the first years of settlement. With sparse timber resources, early settlers quickly recognized the need to discover and develop alternate sources of energy for local consumption. Coal was discovered in 1849 near Coalville, Utah, about 40 miles east of Salt Lake City, and coal was delivered to the city by ox team for about $40 until 1874, when the Union Pacific Railroad began a more extensive development o the Coalville field and delivered its product to Salt Lake by rail. Other early discoveries in widely-scattered locations throughout the state gave pioneers an indication of the extent of the state's coal resources. In 1854, two former Welsh coal miners discovered a coal bed in the central Utah county of Sanpete, and in 1852, in an attempt to produce locally-made iron, coal was sought and discovered in southern Utah, near Cedar City. The coal industry in these years reflected the subsistence nature of Utah’s economy. All coal was produced and used locally. Production methods were primitive, and transportation to nearby communities was slow and costly (Arrington 1958).
As with many industries in the intermountain west, coal production changed radically with the coming of the railroad in 1869. The Union Pacific Railroad, builder of the first transcontinental line, needed vast quantities of coal for its operations. The railroad acquired and developed numerous coal mines near its right-of-way, including mines at Rock Springs, Wyoming; Gunnison, Colorado; and the mine at Coalville, Utah. The Union Pacific began development in Coalville in 1874 and, for the next ten years, virtually the only coal available in Salt Lake City came from this railroad. Several attempts were made by various Salt Lake business interests to break this monopoly, but none succeeded.
A second railroad, however, entered the coal industry in Utah. In 1882, the Denver & Rio Grande Western (D&RGW) completed its line over the Colorado Rockies and into Utah. Although originally planned to extend directly west through central Utah, the D&RGW changed the route in 1881 when surveyors reported the existence of large coal seam in Price River Canyon. The D&RGW line now turns north at Green River, Utah, goes over the Wasatch Plateau through Price River Canyon into Spanish Fork Canyon, then into Utah County and on the Salt Lake City. The D&RGW formed a subsidiary coal company, called the Utah Fuel Company, and immediately began opening coal mines in the fields of Carbon and Emery counties which eventually became the major source of coal in the state. By 1900, when Utah coal production first exceeded one million tons, Utah Fuel produced 90% of the coal in the state (Arrington 1958).
The D&RGW produced this coal from three major mines it purchased and developed in the years between 1882 and 1900: Winter Quarters Mine near Scofield (1882), the Castle Gate Mine three miles up Price Canyon near Helper (1888), and the Sunnyside Mine (1900) . The Castle Gate Mine site was adjacent to the D&RGW rail line through the canyon and directly northwest of the location of the Kenilworth Mine (Alexander 1963)
Although a different railroad now produced Utah coal, the monopoly condition in the state persisted. Coal prices in Salt Lake were considered high by the standards of the surrounding western states, and there were repeated shortages in the state. Local Salt Lake businessmen such as Charles N. Strevell, Fred and Arthur Sweet, and Jesse Knight began prospecting in Carbon and Emery counties with the intention of competing with the D&RGW. The company responded with tactics which raised loud complaints from the local businessmen, who accused the railroad of having its “armed guards” drive the local prospectors from the “public domain” in Carbon County and later, after independents had begun production, of charging the independents more for transporting their coal to Salt Lake City. Various investigations by the Interstate Commerce Commission and the Utah state legislature continued for the next decade and, by the depression of the l920s, Utah Fuel’s share of coal production had been cut to less than 40% (Alexander 1963).
Kenilworth Mine - Initial Discovery
During the spring of 1904, Heber J. Stowell, a resident of spring Glen (a town two miles south of Helper, Utah) was hunting wild horses in mountains above the present town of Kenilworth when he stumbled on an outcrop of coal. Stowell recovered a few chunks of the exposed vein and showed the samples to an acquaintance named W. H. Lawley of Price, Utah. The following year, the two men joined forces and began prospecting seriously in the area that was to eventually become the Kenilworth Mine.
In order to continue their work through the winter of 1905-06, the two men needed financial assistance. Their initial backers were James Wade of Price and Fred Sweet of Salt Lake City. Sweet was prominent among Salt Lake businessmen who were interested in breaking the D&RGW monopoly on Utah coal production. The prospecting was particularly dangerous because the coal generally became crawling along narrow ledges and across talus slopes. Eventually the two prospectors decided to open the vein in Bull Hollow on the northeast side of the mountain above Kenilworth, but this choice proved to be a bad one, and mining was discontinued in Bull Hollow for a number of years (Reynolds 1948).
Independent Coal & Coke Company, 1906-1910
By the fall of 1906, the prospect was ready for large commercial development. At this point, Sweet and Stowell sold their interest to Salt Lake City hardware magnate Charles N. Strevell. Strevell and several other businessmen incorporated the Independent Coal & Coke Company under the laws of Wyoming, with a capitalization of one million shares of common stock worth $1 each. Strevell was named president of the new corporation, James J. Paterson, Vice President and Treasurer, and F. A. Druehl, Secretary (Higgins 1910).
The new company set about purchasing the adjacent lands, undertaking necessary construction and acquiring mining machinery. By 1910 Independent Coal & Coke owned 3,200 acres of land, which included property above the coal seam in Section 8, 9, 16, 17 and 18, land for a company town for the miners in Section 16, a right-of-way for a rail line to the D&RGW main line near Helper and land along the Price River for a pumping station and coal washing plant (Figure 1).
Under its coal lands, Independent Coal & Coke found three workable seams - the Aberdeen, the Royal Blue and the Kenilworth. The Aberdeen seam, the one lowest on the mountainside, had originally been worked by Stowell and Sweet in Bull Hollow. The Aberdeen seam has coal that is from 15 to 22 feet thick. The problem with most of the coal in Bull Hollow was that much of the first few hundred feet had caught fire and burned at one tine, and much of the coal that could easily be mined had been reduced to clinkers. The company, however, found a portion of the Aberdeen seam about 750 feet up the cliffs directly north of the townsite of Kenilworth which had not been burned and from which marketable coal could be recovered immediately. The first opening for the mine, later known as the Aberdeen No. 1 Mine, was made at this point.
Once work began on the Aberdeen,, a second coal seam directly above it could be reached. The middle, or Royal Blue, seam averaged six to 10 feet in thickness, and was eventually mined through an opening far down the main shaft, or “slope,” of the Aberdeen. The third, or upper, seam was called the Kenilworth, and it too was worked from an opening far down the main slope of the Aberdeen. The Kenilworth averaged 16 to 18 feet thick. The coal in these veins was all of a very high quality bituminous coal - low in ash, sulphur and moisture content, yet with a high BTU content (Doelling 1972).
Development work on the No. 1 mine opening in the Aberdeen started with the cutting of the main shaft, or slope, 3000 feet northwesterly into the seam. The slope was nine feet high and 12 feet wide, and followed the incline of the seam as it dipped downwards on a 9-degree slope. Fourteen “entries” were cut off the main slope, seven on each side. Rooms were cut from each of these entries. All mining was done by the room-and-pillar method. Because of the solid sandstone above and below the three seams, very little timbering was necessary to support the roof.
Coal from the Royal Blue and Kenilworth seams was transported to the main slope in the Aberdeen. In 1910 the slope connecting the Royal Blue began at Room 7 of the first left entry of the Aberdeen, exited the mountain west of the Aberdeen No. 1 opening and reentered the Royal Blue seam which lay directly above the Aberdeen seam about 60 feet. The main slope of the Royal Blue was sunk 1000 feet over an incline of approximately 9 percent. Four entries were made on each side of the main slope of the Royal Blue, and eventually a second slope was dug to further open the vein. Little work had been completed on the upper, or Kenilworth, vein by 1910, other than a few prospect holes completed in order to “prove up” on the company’s claim.
Various strength steel rails were laid throughout the network of slopes, entries and rooms so that the coal could be hauled on tram cars to the surface The company installed 25-lb steel rails in the rooms, 40-lb rails in the entries and 50-lb. rails on the main slope. Horses were used to pull the tram cars out of the rooms into the entries, where they were placed on “partings,” or side tracks, near the main slope and within easy distance of the haulage rope. Stationed at various places in the mine were Fairbanks-Morse portable hoists, used to draw coal from the partings to where it could be loaded onto the main hoist. One Fairbanks-Morse hoist was located at the sixth right entry and used to haul cars from the deep workings. A second Fairbanks-Morse hoist was located at the top of the Royal Blue seam. Cars were then lowered by gravity to the Aberdeen seam and kept at a parting in the first left entry until they could be connected to the main hoist. The main hoist was a “double-drum” Ottumwa hoist 12 by 14 feet connected to a one-inch cable. The Ottumwa hoist pulled the coal to the surface.
At the mouth of the mine, Independent Coal & Coke constructed a number of buildings to house the hoists, power supply, fan and water systems. Two 125-hp Kewanee boilers furnished steam power to the hoists, to the fan for the ventilation system, and to a Sullivan air compressor. The ventilation fan was manufactured by Eagle Iron Works. It had a 12-blade 16x5’ fan with a capacity to move 75,000 cubic feet of air per minute. A water tank and distribution system were also constructed to improve safety in the mine. It was not until 1911, however, that the company installed a pump on the Price River, and during the early years, water had to be hauled by rail to the tipple and pumped to the tank at the mine opening. A 2-inch main ran down the Aberdeen’s main slope from the water tank, and 1-1/2-inch line branched off into the various entries and rooms. The mine was sprinkled at least twice a week to keep the explosive coal dust from reaching critical levels, and the entire area was sprinkled before any dynamiting was done.
Coal was removed from the seam in two principal ways. During the initial phase, miners used Sullivan drills and coal cutters. They undercut a section of the working face with the cutters, making a 5-foot deep cut in the face. Explosives were then set and the coal blasted to the floor. Since the Aberdeen vein was 22 feet thick, coal was removed from the roof by drilling holes and again setting explosives.
Once the loaded cars left the mine, a Hendrie & Bolthoff hoist lowered then 1,200 feet along a single-track route known as the “Shelf Line” because it skirted the edge of steep cliffs. The Shelf Line ran east from the mine portal to an area known as the “Knuckle,” where a set of double tracks ascended from the tipple area below. The tram cars were transferred to a huge hoist system powered by two gravity drum hoists manufactured by the Dillon Box Iron Works, each with a 50,000-lb. capacity. Each trip lowered 26 tons of coal to the tipple in about 75 seconds. An empty set of tram cars was hoisted to the Knuckle by the weight of the loaded cars going down. The gravity, or middle, tram line was laid with 75-lbs. steel rails. This tram line system included 193 cars by 1910, with that number rising substantially over the ensuing five years.
The first tipple built by the company was constructed of fir. Tram cars ran over the top of the tipple where they were weighed, then a Phillips automatic cross-over dump emptied them onto a Jeffrey-type shaking screen manufactured by the C. S. Card Co. of Denver. The screens sized the coal to the various grades then popular on the market, including “lump,” “stove,” “egg and nut,” and “slack.” The sized coal went into individual bins with Christy-type gates on the bottom for gravity loading into rail cars. The slack coal was carried by conveyor belt to two 125-hp Kewanee boilers used for powering the shaking screens, pumps, machine shop, car loader, blacksmith shop and other equipment at the lower portion of the mine’s facilities.
Independent Coal & Coke also built, during this first construction period, a 4.5-mile branch rail line from the D&RGW line near Helper to the tipple. Two 25-ton Shay engines hauled railroad cars from the siding to the tipple. Each engine was capable of hauling 2,000 tons. The empty cars were weighed before entering the tipple area by a 100-ton Fairbanks 50-foot scale, and weighed again by another set of Fairbanks scales after they had been loaded by the tipple. The company had enough siding adjacent to the tipple to store 100 cars, and enough at the Kenilworth Junction near Helper for 150 cars.
In addition to the extensive development of mine workings, the company also planned and developed a town on the flats south of the tipple area. By 1910, the company employed 485 men, and it was estimated that the town of Kenilworth contained 750 people.
Mine Development, 1910-1920
During this decade, the Independent Cole & Coke Company continued its capital improvement program for the mine. Much of this improvement effort went toward increasing the efficiency of the operation and reducing the cost of its coal. As part of its original planning for the future, Independent Coal & Coke purchased 101 shares of stock in the Spring Glen Canal Company, which entitled it to 250,000 gallons of Price River water. In addition, the company also bought separate water rights to another 70,000 gallons from the river. In 1911 a third set of 125-hp Kewanee boilers was installed on the company’s property near the river. These boilers powered a “triple expansion duplex” Worthington pump with a capacity of 300 gallons per minute, an auxiliary pump with a capacity of 100 gallons per minute and a much smaller pump used to lift the water out of the river into settling ponds. Four miles of 6-inch diameter pipe connected this pumping plant with the mine,, which was 1000 feet higher in elevation. The water was held in a storage reservoir near the tipple and gravity-fed to the town of Kenilworth and pumped up to the water storage tank near the Aberdeen portal (State of Utah 1911).
Development work on the other two seams owned by the company continued at a steady pace during the decade, although neither the Royal Blue nor the Kenilworth were mined as extensively as the Aberdeen. The original shaft connecting the Royal Blue was abandoned in 1913 and a new shaft dug to the sixth right main entry, where the hoist was located for workings deeper into the Aberdeen seam itself. As the Kenilworth seam was further developed, however, the company decided it was not economically feasible to mine to Royal Blue seam. A second tunnel was also connected to the sixth entry from the Kenilworth seam, and a main slope was dug as a prelude to extensive development (State of Utah 1913). As the Kenilworth seam was further developed, however, the company decided it was not economically feasible to mine the Royal Blue seam. Mining in the Royal Blue seam was discontinued in 1914.
As haulage distances increased, however, the demand for power increased substantially. In 1913 Independent Coal & Coke decided to switch its entire operation to electricity. The two Kewanee boilers near the Aberdeen portal and the two used for the pumping plant was transferred to an enlarged powerhouse near the tipple. The six boilers were then used to produce electricity for the mine. The boilers were equipped with mechanical stokers and a bigger conveyor to bring slack from the tipple. A General Electric 500 KW generator that produced 2300 volts was installed. Most of the steam driven hoists were now replaced and refitted to run on electricity. A 400-hp motor replaced the Ottumwa steam hoist on the Aberdeen’s main slope, and the shelf hoist was converted to a two-speed electric hoist. Six electric undercutting machines replaced the compressor-driven Sullivan drills, and a set of direct current motor/generators was purchased for the machines. Electricity also brought improved safety to detonating charges in the mine. An electric “shot firing system” now allowed miners to detonate their charges from outside the mine (Independent Coal & Coke Co. 1918).
Demands for power continued to increase quickly, and the original generating equipment was soon too small to power the mine. In 1917 Independent Coal & Coke began negotiating for an additional generator, but World War I had driven the price of machinery to a level beyond what the mine could afford. In July, the company decided to purchase its power from the Utah Power and Light Company. The existing generator was sold during the war for a much higher price than the mine originally paid. Three of the six boilers were disposed of as well, three being retained to power what few pieces of equipment it was still easier to run by steam.
Independent Coal & Coke also decided to replace its old wood-frame tipple with a steel-frame one. The new tipple was designed so that four grades of coal could be loaded simultaneously. A rescreening plant was added to this new tipple as well. It was designed to separate the slack from the fine coal dust. The slack was now sold and the dust conveyed to the company’s boilers.
During the 1915-1918 period also, the company decided to open a second entrance into the Aberdeen and Kenilworth seams. The old Stowell workings in Bull Hollow were completed revamped. The first several hundred feet of the Aberdeen seam in Bull Hollow had been burned, so the company decided to open the Kenilworth seam in this location and connect to the Aberdeen seam further into the mountain. A tram road from the tipple was built almost a mile around the mountain to Bull Hollow, and a steep grade to the mouth of the new opening connected the tram road with the mines. The company purchased a 30-ton Shay locomotive to carry the loaded cars to the tipple. The new opening was outfitted with a variety of electric hoists, mining machinery and a General Electric locomotive to carry coal up the slopes to the mine opening. The hoist which lowered the cars down the incline from the mine to the tram road was installed in a cut-stone building, along with the fan machinery (Independent Coal & Coke Co. 1918).
Mine Development, 1921-1937
Development of the main slopes for the Aberdeen and Kenilworth seams had proceeded to such an extent that by 1920 the farthest workings were now 750 feet below the original Aberdeen No. 1 opening, meaning that mining was taking place underground at exactly the same level as the tipple outside the mine. By 1920, the company had opened and was producing coal from four separate slopes in the Aberdeen and Kenilworth seams, two of which were connected to the original Aberdeen slope and two in the new Bull Hollow opening. The mines were designated:
Original mine opening
Aberdeen No. 1
Kenilworth No. 3
Bull Hollow opening
Aberdeen No. 2
Kenilworth No. 4
In an effort to cut the cost of transporting the coal to the tipple, the company decided to drill two tunnels into the mountain which would intersect the seams on the same level as the tipple outside. The tunnel in Bull Hollow was begun in 1920. Finished in 1921, the tunnel was 3100 feet long and intersected the Aberdeen seam well behind the burned-out area near the surface, and ended in the main slope of the Kenilworth seam.
By 1922, Independent Coal & Coke began a second tunnel into the original mine workings, the No. 1 and No. 3 mines. Excavation on this tunnel was finished in February 1924, and a double-track tram system was then installed along the 8100-foot length. Like the tunnel in Bull Hollow, the second tunnel intersected the Aberdeen seam and ended in the Kenilworth seam. Once these two tunnels were complete, all coal produced from the mine was brought to the surface through them. The original openings, the shelf line, the gravity tram line and other features were no longer used after the tunnels' completion. The original opening was then used primarily for ventilating the mine.
The mine ventilation system was also redone after the completion of the rock tunnels into the seams At the old Aberdeen No 1 portal, a 5xll-foot Jeffrey centrifugal fan was installed At the original opening in Bull Hollow, a 7x3-foot Jeffrey fan supplemented the Aberdeen portal system. Both fans were designed as exhaust fans. Air entered the nine through the rock tunnels and was drawn upwards through the mine workings and out through the original portals. Together the two fans could circulate approximately 125,000 cubic feet of air per minute.
During the 1921-1937 period, Independent Coal & Coke continued the mechanization of its mining at a steady pace, with almost all hand labor eliminated by 1939. In this respect, Kenilworth mines were well in advance of most other mines in the State of Utah. Mechanization of loading of the coal cut from the face of a working room first took place in 1928, but it was not until 1935 that the pace of mechanization began to expand rapidly. By 1939, 83% of the mine’s production was machine-loaded. (At the time, the average for all Utah coal mines was 65%). Kenilworth coal was mined by machine, drilled with power drills, either loaded directly into mine cars with portable loading machines or carried down-slope by conveyors, then carried to the surface by cable and reel locomotives.
The tipple system also underwent radical changes during this period in the mine’s history. The company’s tipple built in 1917 was torn down and rebuilt in 1926 and rebuilt again in 1931. This last tipple, built by the McNally Pittsburgh Manufacturing Corporation, lasted until the mid-1950s. Loaded cars were dumped into the tipple with a rotary car dump and the coal conveyed to the crusher. From the crusher, the coal moved to a shaking screen, which sized the coal into a variety of saleable sizes; impurities were picked out by hand as the coal passed along the conveyor to the storage bins. A blending conveyor carried the coal from the bins to be loaded into railroad cars. The four sizes of coal could be loaded separately or combined in various proportions.
The Coal Market and the Kenilworth Mine, 1939-1961
After World War I, the coal mining industry went into an economic slump that lasted until 1940. Competition from other forms of energy, such as oil and natural gas, began to erode the mine’s market about the same time as an overall slackening in demand occurred because of improved technology for the use of coal.. Independent Coal & Coke responded to this situation by seeking to improve productivity. The new mining machinery installed in 1917 in the Bull Hollow opening heralded four decades of increasing automation. By 1939, the mining and loading of coal was almost completed mechanized in the mine; yet, as the market for coal sagged, the company was forced to abandon the most costly portion of its mine. The Aberdeen seam was closed down in 1937; since that time all coal from the mine has been from the Kenilworth seam.
Few changes were made to the physical plant of the mine during this period, however. Most of the buildings from the 1910-1937 era were simply refitted with new machinery The next major change in the Kenilworth Mine workings came in December of 1951. The Independent Coal & Coke Company purchased the holdings of the Utah Fuel Company, including the mine at Clear Creek and the mine and coal washing plant at Castle Gate, directly across the mountain from Kenilworth. At the time, most Kenilworth coal was being hauled around the mountain by rail to Utah Fuel’s Castle Gate coal washery (Bernick 1952). A Utah state legislature report in 1935 had urged the consolidation of Carbon County coal companies to reduce the operating costs of Utah coal firms. Independent Coal & Coke now began to realize some of these reduced costs with the new acquisitions.
The 1950s were a period of transition for the company. Many of the old markets in home heating and cooking were being lost, but new markets in the generation of electricity were being created. In 1954, and again in 1957, Utah Power & Light decided to build generating facilities adjacent to the Castle Gate Mine (Bernick 1954, 1957). This insured a small but steady market for the company’s coal. In 1958 Independent Coal & Coke made a major decision which affected the Kenilworth Mine workings. The company decided to build a 5000-foot tunnel from the old Aberdeen rock tunnel to the main slope of the Castle Gate mine. Kenilworth coal could now be gravity-fed to the Castle Gate mine and washery, thereby eliminating the costs of hauling the coal around the mountain to be washed. The tunnel was constructed in 1959-60 and, later in 1960, the old Kenilworth surface workings were abandoned (Bernick 1961). Only the hoist in the Aberdeen slope was kept in working condition for a few years to lower tram cars down toward the new tunnel. Since its abandonment in 1960, the surface workings of the Independent Coal & Coke Company at Kenilworth have been gradually destroyed. The tipple, tram line, machine shop and other facilities are gone. Only the washhouse, a portion of the power system and various utilitarian buildings remained in the 1980s.
In 1983, however, the U. S. Office of Surface Mining (OSM) and the Utah Division of Oil, Gas and Mining (DOGM) decided that the remaining historic surface workings of the Independent Coal & Coke Company’s Kenilworth Mine should he reclaimed because the existing structures posed a health and safety risk to local residents of Kenilworth. Under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977, the two agencies authorized the destruction of these buildings. As part of the regulatory process prior to the demolition,, the OSM and DOGM undertook a HAER documentation effort in order to preserve as much of the historical value as possible for future research.
Alexander, Thomas G. From Dearth to Deluge: Utah's Coal Industry. Utah Historical Quarterly 31(3):235. Salt Lake City. 1963
Arrington, Leonard J. Great Basin Kingdom: An Economic History of the Latter-day Saints, 1836-1990. Harvard University Press. Cambridge. 1958
Bernick, Robert W. Biannual business reports on Independent Coal & Coke Company, 1951-1964. Salt Lake Tribune December 12, 1951; November 9, 1952; July 24, 1953; April 30, 1954; July 31, 1954; November 4, 1954; February 4, 1955; July 22, 1955; October 27, 1955; January 31, 1956; April 4, 1956; October 30, 1956; April 24, 1957: June 7, 1957; October 23, 1957; January 26, 1959; September 14, 1960; October 27, 1960; February 2, 1961; April 29, 1961; July 22, 1961; February 13, 1962; April 26, 1962; July 22, 1964. Salt Lake City.
Doelling, H. H. Central Utah Coal Fields: Book Cliffs. Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey. Salt Lake City. 1972
Higgins, Will C. The Independent Coal & Coke Company. The Salt Lake Mining Review, 12(12):17. Salt Lake City. 1910
Independent Coal & Coke Company. Report on the Company's first ten years of operation. Ms. on file, Utah State Historical Society. Salt Lake City. 1918
Notorianni, Philip F. Utah Mining History Research Unit. MESA Corporation CRM Paper 7. Salt Lake City. 1982
Reynolds, Thursey Jessen, ed. Centennial Echoes from Carbon County. Daughters of the Utah Pioneers, Carbon County Chapter. Price. 1948
Utah, State of. Report of the Coal Mine Inspector. State of Utah. Salt Lake City. 1911
Utah, State of. Report of the Coal Mine Inspector. State of Utah. Salt Lake City. 1913
Weir, Paul. Report on the Kenilworth Mine. Ms. on file, Price River Coal Company. Helper. 1946
KENILWORTH MINE ANNUAL PRODUCTION
NATIONAL, STATE OF UTAH, AND INDEPENDENT COAL & COKE COMPANY
Source: Paul Weir, Mining Engineer, Chicago
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